Definition of Gene and Genetics

High School ・Biology ・MLA ・2 Sources


Genetics is the branch of science that focuses on studying heredity and its unique components. The genes are responsible for heredity in the cells. However, some geneticists explain the manner inwhich genes can affect heredity and influence the organisms character. Also, this study tries to give answeres to general questions. Some of these questions include but not limited to: how can parents, who have red eyes, give birth to a child with blue eyes? Why are some twins distinct from each other while others have a striking resemblance? It is unquestionable that genes usually affect the progress of some illnesses, possessing a particular height, skin or eye color. Additionally, this led to the progress of science as a majority of the persons strived to get answers to these nerve-cracking questions.
Gregor Mendel is regarded as the founder of the concept of genetics. It is difficult to discuss the terminologies of genetics without reference from this scientist. Moreover, he carried out thorough research on experiments using plants. In addition, these plants were placed in a botanical garden at a convent in Monrovia. The scientist based his study by using peas as his key source of study. Surprisingly, he planted thirty-four diverse kinds of peas in a greenhouse to hasten their maturity period. His main objective was to research if these peas would generate true breeds. The hypothesis of the theory stressed that if green peas produced green peas while yellow peas produced yellow peas. In addition, he desired to research if dwarf plants produced dwarf springs and vice versa. Mendelian Laws were the aftermath of this research. Segregation of features is arguably the initial law. It implied that for any lone pair of characteristics, it is solitarily one of these characteristics can be highlighted in the gamete. Independent assortment was the second law in his research. It depicted that for any two features, their genes are genetically independent. That is, one can inherit a particular characteristic from the mother and another from dad. It is undeniable that the significance of Mendelian rules cannot be ignored in the world of genetics.
Kary Mullis is regarded as the brain behind the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Arguably, the PCR technique is a very significant tool in gene mapping, cloning, DNA sequencing, gene detection, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling based on Mullis' theory of PV92, polymerase chain reaction technique entails augmenting a series of DNA of concern from a trace quantity of DNA sample. Template is typically the starting substance. Nevertheless, the template is referred from any source of double stranded DNA. Denaturation, annealing, and extension narrate the three steps of polymerase chain reaction technique. Furthermore, denaturation occurs when heat is used to degrade the double helix structure into lone strands. On the other hand, annealing addresses the scenario where there is corresponding DNA strand hybridization through DNA primers. Oligonucleotides and primers refer to the short series of DNA upstream and downstream of the area of concern.
Genetics has been used to assess the ancestry of human populations via these specific locations of the chromosomes. Every human possess a unique genetic fingerprint that is ingrained in his or her DNA. Individuals with alike fingerprints share characteristics and can be categorized together. Furthermore, Alu insertions have been useful to evaluate ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction' as particular Alu sequences are only shared amongst persons with a general ancestor. Nonetheless, Castilla (79) narrates that sample cases of Alu insertions have been linked with inherited diseases. Nevertheless, PV92 is an Alu insertion on the chromosome. PV92 possess two alleles that may shed light on the availability or absence of the Alu insertion ( Genetic Origins ). Moreover, this makes it dimorphic regarding distance since there are two general variants for the PV92 region that contrast each other in the availability of the Alu insertion. Alu is an identical element on each paired chromosome. In the absence of Alu insertion, the products of the technique parted by gel electrophoresis will look as a percentage of 641 base pairs (bp), whereas the Alu insertion, the fragment will record at 941 bp. The purpose of this experiment is to augment a DNA series of interest via the PCR technique in order to assess the impact of probable photo repair on colony growth preceded by the assessment of likely heritable mutations.

Materials and Methods

As a perquisite to begin this lab, the bacteria must be present: Serratia marcescens. Ten Trypticase Soy Agar plates are required for week one and two, three plates for bacterial growth in two temperatures which are different and six plates for UV light exposure. Eight Trypticase Soy Broth tubes are required tothe bacteria test. Moreover, this is meant to evaluate bacterial in a heat-controlled environment growth. Six TSA Petri dishes, ultraviolet light, bacteria Serratia marcescens, and a culture to grow the bacteria were used in this experiment. With the help of the falmed inoculating loop, we dipped the bacteria into the microcentrifuge tube of S. marcescens culture and stroke it over the surface of the agar in our petri dish to disband the bacteria. This process involved a lot of repetitions. Such process was effective in the six TSA Petri dishes. All the Petri dishes contained the bacteria but were each was subjected to the certain degree of UV light. The cultures were exposed for around four seconds in order for a dark drawer to grow. Nonetheless, they were examined 24 and 48 hours later so as to quantify the sum of bacteria colonies, and the number of bacteria colonies that have mutated due to UV light. After examination, the mutation frequency was evaluated. In my opinion, this experiment was very structured and less complex.


A sum of three trials was completed in a span of three weeks. Week 1 and two comprised of 10 TSA Petri dishes injected with via a quarantined streak from a starter plate of disease-free Serratia marcescens: a plate subjected to Ultra-Violet for one day, another one to UV for two days, a one day control plate, and a two-day control plate. Furthermore, the control plate guaranteed that the Serratia marcescens used in the lab were not lifeless. For every week of UV exposure, we applied diverse control plates to distinguish the number of bacteria present. From our lab report, the two independent variables in my research were Ultra-violet radiation and the duration of subjection. Outcomes collected were critical in developing relationships between variables.
In the three-week lab report, it was undeniable that the number of Serratia marcescens in the UV-exposed dish were minimal compared to that of the control plate. In addition, the results revealed that the UV light played a significant role in lessening the number of bacteria colonies made. Notably, Serratia marcescens in the Petri dishes subjected to Ultra-Violet for two dayswere minimal than in those subjected for one day. The more the period of the Ultra-Violet exposure, the lower the number of the bacteria gets.
In experiment two, after we loaded every sample at -20 0c for 2 minutes into 1% agarose gel and ran the gel at 100V for 45 minutes. After sometimes, we placed the gel onto a UV box to contrast and visualize the bands. In the experiment, there were 8 DNA samples that we observed and DNA marker, which stood at the top. And the sample 1 and ten did not show.


From the experiment one, the null hypothesis is acknowledged since the intensity of the UV light does not impact the mutation rate. To the best of my knowledge, the number of colonies in the Petri Dishes that were subjected to the UV light implied that the UV light decreased the number of colonies formed. Additionally, the only satisfactory number of colonies that formed was the Petri dishes that were not in the presence of UV light. Additionally, the number of colonies that mutated were negligible. Furthermore, the key argument for this problem is that the bacteria were exposed to the UV light for a lengthy period leading to the death of the bacteria.
In the beginning of the study, it was not clear whether UV light could have an unfavorable effect on mutations. Furthermore, we sought the number of colonies to assess if UV light increases or decreases the reproduction of the bacteria. Hijnen (3) addresses that the growth structure narrated the longer the period of UV exposure, the higher the reduction in colonies number. Additionally, the result from the lab experiments reflected that the less the UV exposure, the greater the bacterial colonies(Hijnen, 3)
From the experiment two, as we witness, we can deduce that sample 1 had an identical DNA with the DNA parent. The other test tubes did not look similar since there was no observation in the tube. During the study, we encountered numerous errors. A pipetting error occurred when the persons transferred the wrong capacity. In addition, when we load these samples into agarose gel repetitively, it can contaminate other samples.

Work Cited

Castilla, E. E., et al. Advances in Mutagenesis Research 2. Vol. 2. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
Hijnen, W. A. M., E. F. Beerendonk, and Gerriet Jan Medema. "Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo) cysts in water: a review." Water research 40.1 (2006): 3-22.

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