Diseases in genetics

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Biology-genetic diseases

Production of recessive traits occur when the dominant gene for a particular characteristic is not present. Before a recessive characteristic is displayed on a person, two recessive genes must be present. These recessive traits include congenital deafness, baldness, straight hair, blue eyes, attached earlobes and albinism (Rosenberg et al 703). There are several genes and alleles in an organism. Some of these alleles are dominant and are displayed in the character of the body. In that light, an individual can take either a dominant and a recessive gene or two dominant genes. This is why the traits present in the parent is expressed in the offspring. Detecting and controlling recessive disorders can be very difficult to identify and manage. For example albinism, it may just happen even if none of the parents has that disease. The best option is going for a test, and then the parents are ready to handle whichever case.

An example of a genetic disorder is sickle cell anemia which is also referred to as sickle cell disease. It is a blood disorder that occurs as a result of inheritance of abnormal hemoglobin which is responsible for transportation of oxygen from one part of the body to another (Stuart et al 1346). Once red blood cells are affected by sickle cell, they are distorted leading to rapid rapture which may later cause anemia. According to research done by World Health Organization in the United States, there must be one person in every 500 people who have sickle cell anemia. Inheritance of a sickle cell trait cannot lead to sickle cell anemia; instead, the sickle gene has to originate from both the mother and father.  Effects of the sickle cell include the yellowish color of the white part of the eye, shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and formation of the mucous membrane in mouth and nose cavities. If there is no diagnosis at early stages, it leads to damage to heart, eyes, liver, kidneys, and bones (Stuart et al 1357). If a child is a diagnosed with the disease at early stages, medication is given by undertaking pneumococcus, influenza and meningococcal vaccines. If it is not diagnosed at early stages in adults, chances of survival are low due to lack of red blood cells and oxygen in the body. However, one can undergo a bone-marrow transplant and survive. However, it is quite challenging since one has to get the transplant from a blood group match.

Work Cited

Rosenberg, Roger N., et al. "Autosomal dominant striatonigral degeneration A clinical, pathologic, and biochemical study of a new genetic disorder." Neurology 26.8 (1976): 703-703.

Stuart, Marie J., and Ronald L. Nagel. "Sickle-cell disease." The Lancet 364.9442 (2004): 1343-1360.

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