Methicillin-resistant Bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

High School ・Biology ・MLA ・3 Sources

A certain reporter called David Hoffman conducted research on the Nightmare bacteria and his studies showed a growing rate of deadly infections. Some time ago, in 2011, a young girl from Arizona who complained of a pain in her hip and other parts of her body was diagnosed with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) which she contracted through a flesh wound on her knee (PBS Frontline). The mecA gene codes for a new penicillin-binding protein (PBP-2a) and it moderates the resistance to MSRA. Some staphylococcal antibiotics like flucloxacillin, nafcillin and methicillin could disable the usual high-binging-affinity PBPs. But methicillin does not disable PBP-2a. So PBP-2a takes on the features of this high-affinity PBPs and helps the bacterial cell grow even in the presence of the antibiotics. Other genes regulate the production of PBP-2a and methicillin-resistant phenotype. The genes meal and mecR1 control the expression of PBP-2a. The other encoding involves enzymatic inactivation of antibiotics by producing penicillins. Moreover, MRSA produces Aminoglycoside altering enzymes protecting them from the antibiotics. Other encoding mechanisms include trapping antibiotics, efflux pump mechanism, complex genetic arrays such as music elements and vanA operon and spontaneous mutation(Berkeley).

Evolution of MRSA resistance to antibiotics began in the 1960s. Currently, many strains of MRSA resist a wide range of antibiotics(Berkeley). The reason for the evolution is mainly due to abuse of antibiotics, short generation times and a large population of the bacteria. Through random mutation and natural selection, bacteria species adapt to antibiotics. Moreover, through horizontal removal, the genes transfer and incorporate to the genome of other bacteria(Verma 19647).

MRSA is highly contagious through the skin-to-skin contact or person-to-object one. It survives for long periods on surfaces and objects. The bacteria is dangerous since it causes severe skin infections, infects surgical wounds, lungs, bloodstream, cause pneumonia and urinary tract infections. It is essential to avoid abuse of antibiotics, ensure cleanliness, and reduce skin-to-skin contact, extensive research on its treatment, limit movement of patients with MRSA, early detection(Verma 19654).

Works Cited

PBS Frontline. Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria. April 2016. November 2017 <>.

Berkeley. Superbug, super-fast evolution. April 2008. November 2017 <>.

Verma, Sarthak. " Utility of Chromogenic Medium for Early Detection of Nasal Carriage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in Healthcare Professionals." Journal of Medical Science And clinical Research 03(05) (2017): 19647-19654.

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