Nutrition and sexual health in humans

High School ・Anthropology ・MLA ・2 Sources

Nutrition and energy dynamics plays a significant role in human beings and animals reproductive functions. The nutrition level of an organism affects its reproductive functions such as fertilization, hormone production and embryonic development among others. Fertility and other reproductive functions in an individual is directly influenced by the nutritional ability. Consequently, energy balance is derived by calculating the differences between the feed intake and energy output of an organism. Energy requirement in females are usually high during puberty, pregnancy, breastfeeding and lactation. However, Rémi et al. (2016, 1846) argue that such energy needs are influenced by the ability of females to conserve the oxidizable fuels.

Reproductive processes like estrogen release, follicle maturation, and release of luteinizing hormone are dependent on energy intake. When there is a reduction in the amount of energy consumption, the usual functions can be hindered, hence, having an adverse effect on body functions especially when individual transitions to adulthood. However, excess energy in the body is stored in the form of fats. This helps in regulation of energy flow and thus the reproductive processes. Although adipose tissue is charged with the role of secretion of bioactive peptides, it also helps in the storage of excess energy in the body.

In females, the presence of adipose tissue reserves influences the ability of an individual to maintain reproductive functions. Moreover, it affects the timing of the onset of puberty in young females. On the other hand, a low percentage of body fat amenorrhea in women.

Unlike in females, males do not require a lot of energy for gamete production. According to Beckett and Taylor (2016, 38), there is a difference between energy requirement for offspring production in males and females. Beckett and Taylor (2016, 26) point out that since females are directly involved in lactation and pregnancy, they have to use a lot of energy compared to male counterparts who are only involved in mating. However, it is important noting that males particularly human beings contribute to parental care. However, the primary physiological burden remains with the females. Also, parental efforts among males are also observed among other animal species.

Question Two

Stress can be described as a mixture of frustrations to the mind due to exposure to negative physical, environmental, social, and emotional factors. Exposure to stress for a long period can be dangerous, and the result may be health complications or even death. There is a relationship between stress and life history of an individual. For instance, occurrences in life like loss of a loved one, strange or negative things that happened in the past, frustrations, or even prolonged illness. Such things can induce stress whenever an individual remembers them. Presence of low energy due to health conditions or low economic status may lead to failure of the brain to coordinate during stress leading to complications or death.

The mind can also be distorted by lack of energy since the brain will always be overworked. Other factors like obesity, high blood pressure or hypertension are also prone to stress. Such people always experience early deaths due to stress and their health conditions. Since the brain tends to work harder during stress, a lot of energy is used in the process.

Michael Marmot argues that most health conditions and diseases are associated with stress hence leading to early deaths. Other factors like a job and social life also have a direct impact on stress. For instance, people who have work-life balance find it easy to evade stressful duties in the workplace while those who spend most of their time working may develop stress due to work related issues (Rémi et al. 1846). Additionally, anti-social people may develop stress faster than individuals who take their time to socialize with others.

Michael also states that social and economic status of a person influences his/her exposure to stress. People in higher economic or social status experience fewer cases of stress compared to their counterparts in low status. Moreover, according to Beckett and Taylor (2016, 31), people belonging to lower social or economic status are prone to stress and other related health condition. Therefore, it can be concluded that inequalities due to factors like environments where people are brought up, place of work, and the economic and social status in the society directly influence stress level and health of an individual. Low socioeconomic status triggers higher response to stress and diseases.

According to Rémi et al. (2016, 1846), breeding seasons are associated with stress hence a lot of energy is conserved for reproductive processes as compared to survival. Several health issues are realized during stressful conditions because of the excessive secretion of steroid hormones. However, during nonbreeding seasons, the available energy is only directed to survival hence leading to stability of the steroid hormones (Remi et al. 1848).

Works Cited

Beckett, Chris, and Hilary Taylor. Human growth and development. Sage, 2016. 22-45.

Fay, Rémi, et al. "Variation in the age of first reproduction: different strategies or individual quality?." Ecology 97.7 (2016): 1842-1851.

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