Astronomy Topic

Freshman (College 1st year) ・Anthropology ・MLA ・4 Sources

The Universe has been described as all matter and the existing house in it. It contains billions of galaxies among them the Andromeda galaxy and the Milky Way galaxy. According to the cosmological mannequin of the Big Bang, the Universe was formed some thirteen billion years ago from hot fabric that split form a revolving mass. The fabric cooled into various objects found in the universe. Among them are the planets, stars, the sun, meteors, meteorites, asteroids, black hole, quasars, satellites and darkish matter.

The stars are luminous objects in the universe that emit their own light from nuclear reactions taking region in them. There are billions of stars in the universe that form various constellations for example siruis, canopas, turus and others. Immeasurably dense stars with huge gravitational force form black holes when they collapse. These black holes are believed to be constantly absorbing light. Stars are found in groupings of different shapes and sizes called galaxies. The largest galaxy is the Andromeda galaxy followed by the Milky Way galaxy. Scientists believe all stars start from a mass of cold molecular hydrogen that gravitationally collapse into fragments that ignite nuclear fusion due to their own gravity. The sun is the star that is closest to the earth.

The sun is one of the billions of stars found in the universe. It is at the center of the solar system and accounts for 99.8% mass of the solar system. It is majorly composed of hydrogen and helium. Other elements such as iron, nickel, oxygen occupy only 2% of the sun. Astronomers account for the origin of the sun with the solar nebula some 4.59 billion years ago.

The universe

The universe, has no center and it is some 13 billion years old with a diameter spanning over 150 billion light years. It is believed to have been hot at its formation according to the cosmological model of Big bang supported with the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), and loses heat due its continued expansion. Scientists believe the universe will end in a Big Freeze according to accurate data and measurements from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). As such the universe will experience Heat Death during the Big Freeze.

The universe is composed of various materials of varying sizes and shapes, some visible with the aid of cosmic telescopes while a huge junk of it is not visible to the electromagnetic frequencies used in the cosmic telescopes. Some of the largest components of the universe are voids, filaments, superclusters, galaxies and clusters. Superclusters are formed from combinations of galaxies and clusters. In turn superclusters form walls of the filaments. The vast spaces in the universe are the voids. These are accounted for by the variations in temperatures of the universe in its earliest stages of development according to measurements by the cosmic microwave background radiation. As such the universe is made of different parts of which are clumped together with voids at some parts.

The invisible parts of the universe are phenomena such as gravitational lensing temperature distributions, orbital velocities and rotating speeds of various galaxies. Dark matter exists in the universe with dark energy and is responsible for astronomical observations such as the galaxies constantly drifting apart that would eventually lead to a Big Rip.

The shape of the universe has been found to be flat from measurements by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe on the cosmic microwave background radiation. This agrees with Einstein’s theory of General Relativity which had prosed three possible shapes of the universe; open, closed or flat.

The sun

In the middle of the solar system is the sun, a hot ball of glowing gases, it’s the largest object centered in it with a much greater gravity holding the planets in their place regardless of their sizes. Mass that is contained in the solar system has it contained in the sun at 99.8% approximately 1.99 × 10^30 kg (333,060 Earths) and 109 times wider than the earth. with helium at 28% and hydrogen 70%, with other gases like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon and metallic substances having 2% of it, and these defines its chemical composition. The heat generated by the sun’s nuclear fusion reactions produce extremely more heat from its core with its temperature being very high at 15.6 million kelvins and about 380,000,000,000 billion megawatts of power. The sun’s surface is known as the photosphere, with a temperature of about 5800 K. This form the lowest layer of the sun with an emission of light that is viewed form the earth as light. the suns magnetic field interact to form the cooler region relative to the surrounding called the sunspots with a temperature of 3800 K, these are said to emerge where the magnetic field lines form the interior of the sun breaks to the surface. its magnetic field is about twice that of the planet earth. Above the photosphere lies the chromosphere and then the esoteric part that forms the sun outermost part called the corona, its only visible during the total eclipse from the earth. The latter transcends millions of miles in the space with temperatures at the corona above 1000,000K. this part shades most of its light as ultra violet rays.

The stars and the universe conciliation

Stars are the fundamental building blocks of galaxies and are the mostly widely recognized objects in the universe for example the sun is one such known star closest to the earth. There are many billions of stars in the universe. Our own Milky Way galaxy has some 200-400 billion stars. They are located at vast light years from each other. They are formed when clouds of cold molecular hydrogen collapse into many individual fragments. The process of collapsing continues under their own gravity until a nuclear fusion reaction is ignited at the core with initial gas from Big Bang as Hydrogen and Helium. During the lifecycle of a star, it converts some of its hydrogen into helium. The stars have varying colors ranging from red to blue. The mass of a star is directly related to its color and temperature. The red dwarfs are the lightest stars and coolest while blue giants are big, massive and hot. It has been found out that most massive stars are the shortest lived. Average stars become white dwarfs when they eject their outer layers until their stellar core is exposed. If the white dwarf forms in a binary or multiple star combination it becomes to be known as a nova. If a star suddenly increases its brightness during a titanic explosion of its core, it comes to be called a supernova. Eventually when the supernovae collapse, it leaves behind neutron stars or black holes. A neutron star is majorly composed neutrons at the end of life cycle of supernovae star when it loses its light and becomes very dense. Black holes are collapsed stars with immeasurable density and having huge gravitational force.


The universe has a lot of materials that needs to be studied to the subatomic level. Probes in space exploration have revealed a lot of details about the universe but there is still much to be discovered. The star is centered in the universe producing heat is later transmitted to the planets in the solar system. The stars are luminous objects just like the sun producing their own light Stars are the fundamental building blocks of galaxies and are the mostly widely recognized objects in the universe for example the sun is one such known star closest to the earth. There are many billions of stars in the universe. The universe is all matter and the existing space in it, it thus comprises of all other stellar objects.

Works cited

Capaccio, George. The sun. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010. Print.

Dorne, Clifford, and Jeffrey Cass. "“Masters of the universe”: Designing a class on crime in American literature." Journal of Criminal Justice Education 5.2 (1994): 217-28. Web.

Harvey, Kathryn. Stars. Nashville, TN: Turner, 2012. Print.

"Sun - Overview | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration." NASA. NASA, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

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