Autism Disease

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Freshman (College 1st year) ・English ・MLA ・3 Sources

According to the American Psychiatric Association, it defines Autism additionally known as Autism Spectrum Disorder as a developmental disorder that causes devastating consequences on people. Because of its debilitating effects, the disease can cause problems in thinking, feeling, and language. A neurological sickness the disorder affects the full functioning of the brain. Different people showcase differing severity and symptoms of the disease. In most of the cases, the patient becomes recognized with the disease in their childhood with boys having a four times occurrence rate compared to girls. Of note, Autism Spectrum Disorder is a lifelong disorder, but there are these cases of children with this disease however end up leading a healthy regular life. Autism Spectrum Disorder causes a variety of effects on the individual and the families, and this can range from the educational, social, and psychological impact.

The Diagnostic Criteria for Autism

Although the concept of Autism has changed over the years because of advances made in research, the DSM-5 recognizes such advancement and thus includes Autism in neurodevelopmental disorders rather than the pervasive development disorder ("DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria"). The neurodevelopmental disorders are those disorders that have their origin in the gestation period, and a deficiency in development characterizes them. Because of this, such disorders results in the reduced abilities of the affected individual on their personal, social, and academic levels. The diagnostic criteria for a person with Autism Spectrum Disorder according to the specifications by DSM-5 include the following: first, the patient exhibits a persistent deficiency in the ability to communicate and to interact socially ("DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria"). Such patients can fail to start or to give response to any forms of social interactions. Further, the patient can also fail to share their interests and their emotions. The patient can further have a poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal mode of communication.

Second, the patient can exhibit the restricted and monotonous patterns of behaviors, activities, or interests and this can include the use of characteristic phrases ("DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria"). Moreover, the patient can display the inability to adhere to routines, for example, such people portray difficulties with their transitions, and they have a rigid thinking pattern. The children suffering from this syndrome also tend to be hyperactive to some of the sensory aspects of their environment. Such sensory elements in the environment can include the excessive smelling and touching of objects, they can exhibit an adverse response to specific sounds or textures, and they can be visually fascinated by some lights and movements. Third, the patient must present such forms of symptoms in their formative stages of development ("DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria"). However, the symptoms become fully manifested when the social environment of the child demands them to respond. Lastly, the symptoms have a tremendous effect on the child’s social, psychological, and other aspects of their functioning ("DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria").

The Prevalence Rate of Autism Spectrum Disorder

According to the center for disease control, the prevalence rate of Autism in the United States of America is one in every 68 children("CDC Update"). For the boys, the prevalence rate is one in every 42 boys while the prevalence rate reduces in girls as it is at one in every 189 girls. By the age of 2 years, most patients with autism can be reliably be diagnosed with earlier diagnosis providing for better opportunities to intervene and support the healthy development of the child ("CDC Update"). Because of such interventions, then this can lead to improved functions and a quality life for the child. The Center for Disease Control arrives at this number by collecting the health and the school records of school going children at the age of 8 years in specific U. S counties (Wright).

From the year 2000 the C.D.C setup a group of researchers under the umbrella group of Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network whose main work is to estimate the prevalence rate of Autism (Wright). Of note, from the year 2000, there has been a drastic increase in the number of Autism cases, but this is because of improved methods of diagnosing the condition. Such an increase in the number of Autistic patients has been replicated in other places across the world, and thus more children are under care. The researchers conduct their analysis every two years to all eight years old student as by that time the majority of the children are enrolled in the various schools (Wright). From the results of the analysis, the researchers determine whether the child meets the criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder even if the child does not have any diagnosis.

Conclusion

Having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder can pose challenges to the parent, but this can also form a platform to learn more about the disorder. Although Autism leads to a reduction in educational, social, and psychological capabilities of the child, undergoing earlier checkup to manage the disease can lead to a healthier life for the affected child. Through the support from the family, the schools, and the government the parents of Autistic children can reduce the instances of stress, anger, anxiety, and depression as a result of this disorder.

Works Cited

"CDC Update on Autism Shows Gap between Early Concerns and Evaluation." Autism Speaks. N.p., 2017. Web. 22 Nov. 2017.

"DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria." Autism Speaks. N.p., 2017. Web. 22 Nov. 2017.

Wright, Jessica. "The Real Reasons Autism Rates Are Up In The U.S.” Scientific American. N.p., 2017. Web. 22 Nov. 2017.

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