Classification of Depressive Disorders

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Classification of Depressive Disorders

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Thesis: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Bipolar Disorder, Postnatal Depression, Dysthymia, and Cyclothymia are all types of depressive disorders that can be classified.

II. MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

A. Sad mood, low self-esteem, gloominess, especially in previously enjoyed activities, reduced socializing, eating and sleeping habits, and even feelings of self-hopelessness and worthlessness are some of the main signs and symptoms.

B. If MDD is not treated early enough, it can lead to job loss, failed relationships, complete behavioral changes, and disastrous, helpless, and hopeless feelings.

III. BIPOLAR DISORDER

A. Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar, is a severe mental illness that manifests itself as periods of extreme euphoria or mania.

B. Its symptoms consist of increased impulsivity, thoughts, and abnormal increase in talking behavior while the complications include paranoia or delirium.

C. The main goal treatment for bipolar patients is to try to have minimized mood swings and all the other symptoms so as to live functional and relatively productive lives.

IV. THE SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER (SAD)

A. SAD is also called winter depression because its symptoms are seasonally experienced.

B. The SAD symptoms include reduced interest or pleasure in day to day activities, a persistent irritability and depressed moods, feelings a lot of despair, guilt and even worthlessness.

C. Sunlight is required by the body to help control the various essential functions, like the time one wakes up; therefore, weak winter sunlight may affect one's body clock and bring about the SAD symptoms.

D. Although the cause of SAD is not known, light therapy has been known to suppress symptoms.

CONCLUSION

In summary, different types of depressive disorders require close monitoring of the affected persons as the primary form of treatment.

Classification of Depressive Disorders

Introduction

Depressive disorders influence one's thoughts, moods, and body. It affects a person’s eating, sleeping, their feelings and how one perceives themselves and other things. Individuals affected by a depressive illness can only work regularly on their day to day activities and make steady recoveries from the disorder. If not subjected to proper medication or treatment, the symptoms might persist for a short while or even up to more than a year. When the illness is diagnosed early and appropriately, it can be of help to help patients reduce the severity of the symptoms (Cowen, pp. 10). Examples of depressive illness consist of, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Seasonal Affective Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Postnatal Depression, Dysthymia, and Cyclothymia.

Major Depressive Disorder

Major depressive disorder sometimes referred to as unipolar depression, is one of the most common psychiatric diseases globally. It is characterized by major depression episodes, and its main signs and symptoms include sad moods, desolate self-esteem, gloominess (especially in activities that the patient previously enjoyed), reduced socializing, and even feelings of self-hopelessness and worthlessness. MDD complications are secondary conditions or other diseases that are caused by it which may lead to reduced performances at work or in school and even relationship problems. If not treated in time, MDD could lead to losing one's job, failed relationships, complete changes in individual behavior, disastrous, helpless and hopeless feelings. During MDD diagnosis, specialists must consider the numerous variations. Depression might be permanent or temporary, chronic or acute, mild or severe; it varies from individual to individual, and this must be considered in the diagnosis.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is characterized by periods of very intense euphoria or mania, which alternates with depressive episodes. Bipolar is classified as a mood disorder, which severely interferes with a person's behavior and the ability to efficiently perform everyday activities. Although its primary cause is not yet known, scientists believe that some environmental and genetic factors seem to be involved in triggering episodes. It may also be related to a chemical imbalance in one’s brain and or deficiency of the related hormones, self-deprivation of sleep, use of antidepressant drugs and hypothyroidism (Goodwin & Jamison, pg. 15). Its symptoms consist of increased impulsivity, thoughts, and abnormal increase in talking behavior while the complications include paranoia or delirium. There are four stages defining bipolar disorder: hypomanic episodes, mania (the most defining stage), depressive episodes, and the fourth and final is a mixed state. The main treatment for bipolar patients is controlling mood swings and all the other symptoms so as to live functional and relatively productive lives.

The Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

SAD is also called winter depression because its symptoms are seasonally experienced, mainly during winters and autumns; while the patient exhibits improvements during the spring and summer seasons. Its symptoms include reduced interest or pleasure in day to day activities, a persistent irritability, and depressed moods, feeling a lot of despair, guilt and even worthlessness. The affected persons may also experience a lack of energy, reduced or prolonged sleeping problems both at night and daytime or even weight gaining. Although its exact cause remains unknown, it is associated with a malfunction in the body's biological clock that controls hormone production and temperature. Sunlight is required by the body to help control the various essential functions, like the time one wakes up; therefore, weak winter sunlight may affect one's body clock and bring about the SAD symptoms. Treatment for SAD patients involves light therapy which suppresses the symptoms.

Conclusion

In summary, different types of depressive disorders require close monitoring of the affected persons as the primary form of treatment. This is because most depressive disorders are caused by one experiencing a stressful period in life and lack of enough sleep or even sunshine exposure. Different types of treatment work for different types of disorders and there is no “one size fits all” treatment. However, in all classifications of depressive disorders, early diagnosis and treatment is key. In case the symptoms are considered to be persistent or severe, then lifestyle measures, light therapy, and talking therapies are some of the known treatments.

Works Cited

Cowen, P. J. (2012). Classification of depressive disorders. In Behavioral Neurobiology of Depression and Its Treatment (pp. 3-13). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Goodwin, F. K., & Jamison, K. R. (2007). Manic-depressive illness: bipolar disorders and recurrent depression (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.

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