Curriculum Design and Basics

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In the contemporary world, higher education is embedded in a context of profound changes that in different countries impact social life with pace, rhythm, and depth. In the implementation of the modern Educational Model, academic reform has made progress. This model acknowledges that quality enhancement requires the redesign of the educational offering and the curricula that specify it, planning to contribute to a knowledge society and fair and just education (UNESCO, 1998). The educational and academic models must result in an improvement of the teacher's role, since they represent the significant part of the institutional effort, but are not limited to it, but are extended to research, extension, and linking. The reform considers a privileged space to the educational offer, for the institutional improvement, and so that the results of their work have a more significant impact and social recognition (De Alba et al., 2000).
This manual aims to contribute to the new educational model and constitutes an effort to advance in the academic reform. The proposed methodology seeks to contribute to the curricular approaches that have prevailed in various educational institutions around the world. To try to turn the curricula into creative and innovative spaces that favor the formation of a learning community, and a focused education in the student and his learning (De Alba et al., 2000).
The manual begins with a brief reflection on the curriculum, definition and its function. Continue with the methodology, which aims to contribute a little to the current proposals of the curricular design. Subsequently, the steps to be followed, and the tasks to be carried out are presented for the curricular design, the frame of reference, the curricular profiles, and the design of the curriculum. All this, to define what should be learned and taught in an academic program, and when (De Alba, et al., 2000).
Followed by the above, aspects of a new curricular proposal are addressed, such as:
1. The design of the courses or learning experiences.
2. The training of academic staff.
3. The conditions of operation and development.
The curricular design is conceived as the process of decision making for the development of the curriculum, before its development. It flexibly configures the instructional space where it will be put into practice, through a teaching-learning process, of which; the curricular project is its anticipated vision. The curriculum is the set of actions developed by the school to provide opportunities for learning. It is designed and practiced for the teacher to teach, and for the student to learn. All this is a mutual and constant feedback between the proposed and the lived (De Alba et al., 2000).
In this manual, the curriculum will be defined as the instrument of organization and academic articulation, where the educational model is expressed and projected in a dynamic, flexible and integrated manner. It is the framework in which the relationships between the main actors of the process, and the role that each one of them corresponds to are defined, and it is the plan that leads a concrete teaching-learning process (De Alba et al., 2000).
The curriculum stipulates:
a. Purpose: Why and what to teach?
b. Knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values: What?
c. Sequence: When?
d. Sequence: How?
e. Principles and didactic orientations: What, how and when to evaluate?
The proposed methodology follows the canons of curricular design, but with an adaptation based on strategic and participatory planning that has been used in the process of academic reform. The general outline shows the steps to follow for the design. Each of the elements that are incorporated in the scheme is developed step by step. Therefore, in this part, these measures are not defined, but the sequence is presented to provide a complete view of the work to be done and of the relationships between the different aspects (De Alba et al., 2000).
The proposal seeks to facilitate the teachers, who are the builders of the curricular designs, the information and the necessary orientations for the elaboration of flexible programs and centered on learning by the educational proposal. This is why design is incorporated by competencies, such as knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are put into play in an integrated manner for performance in a field of action (De Alba et al., 2000).

The Basics of the Curriculum

Curriculum: Elements and Criteria
The curricular design is conceived as the decision-making process for the development of the curriculum, before its development, and to the flexible configuration of the instructional space where it will be put into practice, through a teaching-learning process. The curricular project is your anticipated vision (Tyler, 1949).
The Academic Reform, and particularly the educational model, seeks to provide training focused on learning. That is, to build and manage a new approach to the teaching-learning process, and the relationship it holds with the transmission, recreation, and production of knowledge, to achieve in the teacher and the student, a new attitude towards knowledge (Tyler, 1949).
The rigidity of the curricula and the specialized orientation, characteristic of many higher education institutions, limits the possibilities of the students since they do not recognize the differences in background, learning styles, dedication times and needs. The Academic Reform seeks to overcome these weaknesses. For this, properly designed curricula are required (Tyler, 1949).
The professional competencies are integrated into the curriculum into three components:
1. Disciplinary component: Includes the fields relevant to the disciplinary training and the field of basic and applied knowledge (Tyler, 1949).
2. Professional component: It covers aspects that distinguish one profession from another, such as their normative frameworks, identity, media, language and distinctive instruments (Tyler, 1949).
3. Practical-productive component: It incorporates the optimal performances of activities in which the primary skills for the development of productive tasks are expressed, and includes specific competencies associated with particular tasks (Tyler, 1949).
Referents of the Curriculum
This Manual proposes a strategy of successive approximations, solving stages, and concentrating the information so that it can be used.
Define the contents
What are the essential aspects of the educational project of which the curriculum is a part? What are the social demands to which the institution must respond? What is your social responsibility? Where does knowledge go? What are the future trends of the exercise? How to properly incorporate these aspects? (Taba, 1962).
This stage of the curricular design has the purpose of identifying those institutional and external aspects, which should be taken into account to prepare the curriculum. In this Manual, the institutional or internal references and external referents are first identified, and a methodology is presented to carry out their analysis. The results of the analysis of the internal and external references provide indispensable information to define the profile, the curricular objectives and some of the necessary criteria to determine the curricular content (knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values) (Taba, 1962).

Institutional Referents

Regarding the institutional references, three are considered: Mission, vision and educational model (Robertson, 2013).
1. Mission: Reflects the essence of the institution describes its nature, its reason for existing and the principles and values that guide it.
2. Vision: It is a part of the strategic planning that defines what the organization wants to become in the future, both in the general characteristics and in specific aspects.
3. Educational Model: It is an obligatory institutional reference for curricular design since it expresses the conceptions about relations with society, knowledge, teaching, and learning (Robertson, 2013).

Mission

The mission is a postulate that reflects the essence of the institution describes its nature, its reason for existing and the principles and values that guide it. In the reform process, it must be guaranteed that the curricular changes respond to the institutional purpose and essence. For this reason, it is important that the mission is considered as an element that provides fundamental information, and guides the curricular design (Robertson, 2013).
If the academic unit has defined its mission, it will be necessary to incorporate it into the analysis. For this, in the exercise proposed below, questions will be included to identify those aspects of the mission of the unit that should be considered in the curricular design (Robertson, 2013).
Activity to be carried out
Analyze the relation of the institutional mission, and of the academic unit with the curriculum.
Product / Expected Result
A brief document of conclusions that establishes the relevant institutional guidelines for the definition and decision-making in the curricular design; these results will be integrated into the frame of reference of the curriculum and will be used in the design of the profiles, objectives, contents and curricular structure (Robertson, 2013).
Proposed procedure
To constitute a curricular design commission composed of professors and executives of the academic unit. It is suggested that the program coordinator, the presidents of the academies, the management staff and teachers participate. It will be convenient to look for the commission to have professors from the different areas of the current curriculum (Robertson, 2013).
In the case of programs that are taught in more than one academic unit, the commission will be integrated with representatives of said units.

Vision

The second element that makes up the foundation of the curriculum in the internal sphere is the vision of the future. The vision is a part of the strategic planning that defines what the organization wants to become in the future, both in the general characteristics and in specific aspects, such as its educational offer, and education plans and programs upper middle, and graduate (Robertson, 2013).
As in the mission, if the academic unit has defined its vision, it will be necessary to incorporate it in the analysis.
Activity to be carried out
Analyze the relation of the vision of the future, and of the academic unit with the curriculum.
Product / Expected Result
A brief document of conclusions that establishes the relevant institutional guidelines for the definition and decision-making in the curricular design; these results will be integrated into the frame of reference of the curriculum and will be used in the design of the profiles, objectives, contents and curricular structure (Robertson, 2013).
Proposed procedure
1. The commission is invited to a working session to analyze the relationship of the vision of the future with the curriculum based on the guiding questions.
1. Each participant should review the vision of the future and the current curriculum before the meeting.
2. In the work session, using the software, the guiding questions are presented one by one.
3. Participants are asked for their contributions and answers, analyzed and ranked.
4. The objective of the meeting is to analyze the vision of the future and determine those aspects of the vision that should be considered in the curriculum, as well as compare the vision with the current curriculum. To determine what is available, and what is needed to contribute properly from the curriculum to the construction of the vision of the future (Robertson, 2013).
External Referents
The objective of this part of the curricular design is to determine the forms and horizons of institutional academic development; according to the demands of society, the needs of national development, and national and international trends in the advancement of knowledge, training, and the didactic-pedagogical transformations, and the exercise of the profession (Robertson, 2013).
The identification and analysis of the external referents will allow assuring a higher relevance of the program that is designed, guaranteeing the fulfillment of the social function established in its mission. By incorporating the revision of the trends of the exercise, the advancement of knowledge and the best practices in training ensures the inclusion of valuable and possibly innovative aspects of the curriculum. This revision will trigger the creativity of the members of the commission and will generate ideas and proposals (Robertson, 2013).
Objectives and Curricular Profiles
Before starting the work, it is convenient to make some precisions. First, the type of curricular design model selected. According to some authors, there are at least two: The product, results or achievements, which emphasize the end product of teaching, regarding observable behaviors (consistent with behavioral objectives) and, the development or process, which focuses about the process through which learning is constructed (Kerr, 1968).
Once the work has finished in what corresponds to the frame of reference of the curriculum, it is passed to a stage of planning. In this stage, the general guidelines for the curriculum are designed: the general objective of the program, occupational field of the profession, income and graduation profiles, and curricular objectives, both in general and by area of the curriculum (Kerr, 1968).
Admission profile
The entry profile describes the characteristics required of applicants to enter. It is confirmed to the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values that are desirable for an adequate school performance. Students who register must have the knowledge and necessary skills of the previous level, which guarantees sufficient performance at the level at which they apply for admission. Likewise, they must have the attitudes, and values necessary to be responsible for their training process, and assume an active position in front of the study, and the development of the projects, and required works (Kerr, 1968).
Egress Profile
It is defined as the set of knowledge, skills, abilities, and values, mastery of the theories, methods for recovery, organization, and construction of knowledge, necessary to consider that the requirements of a given training have been met. It also includes the generic description of the functions, tasks, and activities that the graduate can develop (Kerr, 1968).

Curriculum Design

Once the frame of reference, curricular profiles and objectives have been developed, the curriculum design commission will be ready to proceed to select and organize the contents that will be part of the curriculum, and that will allow responding to the present and future identified needs (Harlen, 2010).

Selection of the Curricular Contents

The educational model and the profile emphasize the adequate balance of contents regarding:
1. Basic and general knowledge.
2. The specialized knowledge of the discipline (Harlen, 2010).
This implies that the selection of contents must be carefully analyzed. The curriculum is the path that will allow the student to move from the initial situation to the characteristics indicated in the profile of the graduate. One of the main responsibilities of the curricular design committee is to verify that it is possible to construct the profile, based on the selection of curricular contents that are prepared. (Harlen, 2010).
Activity to be performed
Identify and structure the segments that will make up the curriculum (learning units or subjects).
Product / Expected Result
List of learning units or subjects that will make up the curriculum.
Proposed procedure
1. The contents are located by area and thematic axis.
2. The list of competencies is translated into a list of subjects, which must be coherent groupings of the curricular contents. To do this, first, a list of contents must be made, and then organize these contents in subjects.
3. Once the initial list of possible subjects to be included in the syllabus has been prepared, this list should be analyzed applying the following criteria: relevance, coherence, vertical integration (Harlen, 2010).
At the conclusion of the analysis, you must have a list of the contents and subjects that have been refined, and the modifications made. The consistency of the proposal must be verified with the proposed academic model, previously analyzed (Harlen, 2010).

Design of the Side Exits

By having the curricular objectives by area of the curriculum, it will now be necessary to identify the possible lateral exits. Once the possible lateral exits have been defined, the road must be retracted, to recover the pertinent information and design the curricular objectives; once this is done, the content of the curriculum is analyzed, those subjects or learning experiences that would be useful are identified, and the curriculum is designed (Harlen, 2010).

Course Designs

The curriculum, subject programs and guidelines for conducting the teaching-learning process must be part of a harmonized sequence, so that the educational experience is structured and understandable for the students, and produces the expected results (Diamond, 1998). If so, there would be greater possibilities for the student to integrate the curricular contents that come from different disciplines, and that should be applied in professional practice, guaranteeing that professional competencies are built.
This design will be reflected in a document that is integrated into the curricular proposal. Subsequently, the teachers in charge of the subjects will design their work plan or detailed program that will be submitted for approval by the corresponding academy. This will also contribute to the flexibility of the curricular proposal (Diamond, 1998).
Activity to be performed
To elaborate the general description for each of the learning units or subjects that would have been included in the curriculum.
Product / Expected Result
A document with the general description of each of the subjects included in the curriculum.
Proposed procedure
The curricular design commission carries out the following activities:
1. Reviewing the general objectives of each of the areas of the curriculum.
2. Carefully review the curriculum and the work done in the previous stage.
3. To take up the previous information to prepare a general description of each of the subjects contained in the curriculum.
4. Analyzing the contents of the subjects and determine if you should make any changes to the curriculum.
5. If decide to modify the syllabus, the relevant modifications are made to the general descriptions of the subjects that are affected by said changes.
The general description of the subject must be integrated into the proposal. Also, a copy of this description should be provided to the teachers, in whose position the subject is located. This is a source of indispensable information for the preparation of the program of each of the subjects. This work is under the responsibility of the teachers and the educational institution (Diamond, 1998).

Design of the Subjects, and Learning Experiences

The program of a subject is the planning of the sequence in which the contents and the concrete experiences of teaching-learning by a teacher, with a specific group of students. The program of the subject must be based on the general description already prepared by the curriculum design committee. This description is part of the official documentation presented to the collegiate bodies for the approval of the curriculum. The program of the subject is not part of that official documentation, but it is not less important (Diamond, 1998).
In the program of the subject, the teacher plans in detail the work to be done, and the corresponding academy ensures that the program complies, both with the content and with the didactic orientation appropriate to the content, and educational model of the institution. The general description of the subject is the guide that will guide the design of each of the programs of the corresponding subjects (Diamond, 1998).
Activity to be performed
Define the guidelines and general recommendations that will guide the development of the programs of the subjects.
Product / Expected Result
A short document that defines the guidelines and general recommendations for the design of the programs of the subjects.
Proposed procedure
The curriculum design committee reviews the progress of the work carried out and executed the following activities:
1. Analyze the proposed format, and introduce the relevant modifications according to the program that is designed.
2. Define in detail each of the items of the format to guide teachers.
3. It establishes the general orientations that will have to be considered by the professors for the design of the programs.
Various methodologies can be used to design courses, for which you can consult bibliographies.

Didactic-Pedagogical Guidelines

This proposal for a new educational model contains references to a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. In this regard, it establishes that the imparting of contents should be considered through knowledge construction methods, which involve problem-solving, research, teamwork, information search, essay development, practical activities, among others (Diamond, 1998).
This conception of the educational process requires a more active student, and a teacher who also considers himself as a facilitator of learning experiences, and not only as a transmitter of information. To do this, the professors will be able to carry out some of these activities: use research, problem-solving, and collaborative learning as training strategies (Diamond, 1998).
Activity to be performed
Elaborate the didactic-pedagogical guidelines of the program.
Product / Expected Result
A short document that guides the academic staff, and the students in the role that is expected to assume in the new curriculum.
Proposed procedure
1. The curricular design commission carries out the following activities:
2. Review the educational model
3. Examine the results of the work done in stage 1 of the design.
4. Consult bibliography on the subject, and analyze the proposal of the educational model.
5. Elaborate the guidelines for the development of the process of
6. Teaching-learning in the study program, indicating the role that teachers and students must assume. You can consult bibliography.
It is very important that the guidelines developed by the commission be widely disseminated, and discussed with the academic staff. In the section profile of the professor, and formation of the academic personnel alternatives of formation of the academic personnel are presented (Harlen, 2010).

Start-up of the Study Plan

The curricular change is a necessary condition, but not enough, to raise the quality, and achieve greater social relevance. The best curriculum and program of a subject will not be effective if the proper attention is not given to the way in which students learn, and teachers teach (Harlen, 2010).
Although it is accepted that critical thinking, problem-solving, communication, and interpersonal skills are indispensable at the top level, research results show that the predominant method is expository, with passive students receiving information (Diamond, 1998). This method is not always adequate to develop the complex competencies required by professional practice, especially when the knowledge is of a disciplinary nature.

Teacher Profile and Training of Academic Staff

In this stage of the curricular design, it is necessary to review and re-elaborate the profile of the teaching staff participating in the program. This step has been intentionally left until one of the final stages of the design since it is executed together with the entry, and exit profiles. This does not always reflect the real needs of the program regarding the type of teacher, and the role it would play in the program. A profile is made of the academic personnel suitable for the program, but it is not specified what will have to be done for the program to reach that profile (Diamond, 1998).
Activity to be performed
Prepare the profile of the academic staff.
Product / Expected Result
Profile of the academic staff that will serve as an orientation for the design of updating programs, and training of the teaching staff, and where appropriate, for the selection and hiring of new professors.
Proposed procedure
1. The curriculum design committee will meet to develop the profile of the teaching staff that participates or will participate in the program.
2. The documents prepared in the first three stages of the curricular design should be revised, especially the aspects related to the trends of the development of the labor field, and knowledge, as well as the best practices in the educational institutions, and the requirements of the evaluating and accrediting bodies.
3. It is convenient to conduct interviews with teachers, students, and outstanding graduates to identify the desirable characteristics of the teaching staff.
4. Finally, the graduate profile of the program is reviewed, the answers to the guiding questions are searched, and the working group meets to elaborate the profile of the teacher (Diamond, 1998).
As regards the training of academic staff, the first step to be taken in the implementation of a new creation program, or a curricular redesign is the induction to the new program. On many occasions, this is an activity that is not perceived as a priority.
The curricular redesign usually implies the inclusion of new contents in the curriculum. This should be considered in the design of the updating program, and training of academic staff, to have experts in the areas or disciplines of the specific scientific or professional field. In short, the updating and training of academic staff should consider, at least, these two major aspects:
1. Disciplinary.
2. Didactic-pedagogical (Diamond, 1998).
Activity to be performed
Identify the training and updating needs of the academic staff in disciplinary and didactic-pedagogical aspects, as well as the best strategies to ensure that the training of academic staff corresponds to the requirements of the curriculum (Diamond, 1998).
Product / Expected Result
Program for updating and training the teaching staff of the academic unit.
Proposed procedure
The curriculum design committee will meet to develop the training program for the teaching staff, which will participate in the program. For this, they will be able to use the methodology to detect training needs, designed by the teaching development department of the academic secretariat (Diamond, 1998).
The following aspects should be considered:
1. Induction to the new curriculum.
2. Educational-pedagogical training
3. Training in the fields and disciplinary areas required by the new curriculum.
The academic staff-training program of the educational center contemplates actions in the short, medium, and long terms.
To develop the training program, it is required:
1. Analyze the proposal of a new educational model.
2. Identify the requirements of the new curriculum.
3. Analyze the profile of the teacher previously prepared.
4. Identify the current characteristics of the academic staff regarding disciplinary and didactic-pedagogical training.
5. Compare the current situation with the desirable future.
6. Identify the best strategies for the training of academic staff.
7. Concentrate the information in the proposed format or another format according to the needs of the educational center.

Conditions of Operation and Development

Once the contents of the curriculum and the didactic orientation have been determined, it is possible to identify the requirements to implement the new plan. These can be of various types:
1.Supports for learning.
2.Training of academic staff.
3.Infrastructure and equipment that will be required in the short, medium and long terms.
4.Modifications to the organization and management processes, among others.
This section of the manual proposes a methodology to identify those activities that will be necessary to incorporate the planning of the educational center, so that it is possible to guarantee the adequate implementation of the curriculum, by the general plan of action that is elaborated for the new educational model. Schematically, this can be presented as follows:
Activity to be performed
Identify the needs and actions of the implementation of the new curriculum.
Product / Expected Result
A document that presents, in a summarized and prioritized manner, the requirements and actions needed at the level of the educational center, for the implementation of the new curriculum.
Proposed procedure
The curriculum design committee reviews the progress of the work carried out, and performs the following activities:
1. Review the result of the work proposed in this manual, relating to identifying the innovative features of the proposed curriculum and indicating the appropriate strategies for its implementation.
2. Analyze the proposed curriculum and the characteristics of the teaching-learning process defined in the guidelines section pedagogical didactic.
3.Prepare a strategic diagnosis, to determine what you have (strengths), and what is missing (weaknesses), to start the new curriculum.
4.Study the proposed program of training of academic staff and incorporate this result in the general requirements.
5. Prepare a document of requirements and actions necessary for the implementation of the new curriculum (a format is proposed to concentrate the information).

Evaluation and Updating of Plans and Programs

The purpose of this stage of the curricular design is to establish the guidelines that will be used to ensure the quality and continuous improvement of the curriculum, as well as the procedure for its updating. In this manual, it is proposed that the evaluation includes different areas:
1.The curricular design.
2.The operation of the curriculum.
3.The results obtained and their impact.
In the sections that make up this segment, each one of these areas is briefly developed, and the work to be carried out by the curricular design committee is presented. The work to be done is the elaboration of the criteria, and guidelines for the evaluation in each of these areas (Diamond, 1998).

Curriculum Evaluation and Update

This part of the evaluation has the purpose of improving the educational program, which should be reflected in the criteria, and methodologies that are designed. There are different types of evaluation; in this case, it is about contrasting and issuing a judgment regarding the duty of the program. That is if the established planning (the curricular design) is consistent with the institutional purposes, and with the social needs, it intends to meet (Diamond, 1998).
Aspects to be evaluated are the following:
1. Internal and external consistency of the curriculum
2. Operation of the program and the quality of the educational service provided.
This is an activity that is facilitated in a flexible curriculum, since it can be done for an area of the curriculum, for a subject in particular, or for the entire curriculum. The methodology that is proposed and the information that is required will be the one that allows evaluating.
Some Aspects:
1. Concordance of the selected contents with the institutional and external references. Congruence of the curricular proposal, and the needs that it pretends to satisfy.
2. The validity of external references (advances in knowledge, development of new methodologies, techniques, new trends in the exercise of the profession, etc.).
3. Congruence of the contents of the curriculum with the profile of the graduate and the curricular objectives.
4. Suitability of the structure of the curriculum to obtain the expected results.
5. Results obtained regarding the capacity of the program to retain students, and the quality of its graduates.
6. Sufficiency of the resources allocated to the program. Correspondence of the resources used, and the results obtained.
Activity to be performed
Define the criteria, guidelines, and procedures for the evaluation of the curricular design.
Product / Expected Result
A document that contains the criteria, guidelines, and methodology for the evaluation of the curricular design.

Evaluation and Updating of the Programs of the Subjects

One aspect that should be addressed systematically by the center and by teachers is the evaluation and updating of the syllabuses. This evaluation includes both the contents and the didactic strategies selected/proposed for each of the subjects, or learning experiences contained in the curriculum (Harlen, 2010).
Activity to be performed
Define the general guidelines to assess the relevance and updating of the contents of the subjects and the relevance of the didactic strategies selected in each of the subjects.
Product / Expected Result
A short document that contains the general guidelines for the evaluation.
Proposed procedure
The curriculum design committee reviews the progress of the work done, and performs the following activities:
1. Review the evaluation procedure established in the current curriculum.
2. Review specialized literature on the subject.
3. Consult specialists in the evaluation.
4. Prepare a brief document that defines the general guidelines for the evaluation of the subjects. Following aspects:
a. Update of contents considering the advances in knowledge.
b. The relevance of teaching strategies.
c. Detection and attention to deficiencies in the contents of the syllabus programs (Harlen, 2010).

Evaluation of Students and Professors

The evaluation of students and teachers has multiple purposes. In the case of students, it is evaluated to:
1. Determine if an applicant meets the program entry profile.
2. Accredit a subject or unit of learning.
3. Leave the program.
Regarding teachers, the purpose is to improve teaching practices and identify training needs to enhance student learning and performance. The entrance exam provides valuable information about the student's prior education. This information should be used for decision making, in each of the subjects of the first school year in which the student has enrolled, to make adjustments in the programs of the subjects, and define the needs regarding tutoring, counseling, and support programs (Harlen, 2010).
This means that priority is given to personalized attention, and the formative use of evaluations, by what is stated in the center's educational model.
Activity to be performed
Define the general guidelines for the evaluation of students, and teachers.
Product / Expected Result
A brief document that explains the general guidelines for the evaluation of students, and teachers.
Proposed procedure
The curriculum design committee reviews the progress of the work done, and performs the following activities:
1. Review the evaluation procedures established in the current curriculum.
2. Review specialized literature on the subject.
3. Consult specialists in the evaluation.
4. Prepare a brief document that defines the general guidelines for the evaluation of the subjects, at least in the following aspects:
a. Students: income, path, and exit.
b. Teachers
In this stage of the curricular design, the following documents have been prepared:
1. Criteria and guidelines for the evaluation of the curricular design.
2.General guidelines for the evaluation of the programs of the subjects or learning units.
3.General guidelines for the evaluation of students, and academic staff.
At the end of this stage, the design phase has been completed, and the curricular update proposal is prepared, which will be presented to the councils in charge of analyzing and approving the proposal so that the curriculum can begin operations (Harlen, 2010).

Activities Calendar

As stated in the manual, the curricular design is a complex activity, involving the participation of multiple actors, both institutional and external. It includes the realization of activities of diverse nature, interviews with focal groups, documentary research, and field research. For this reason, it is necessary to organize the development of the works adequately (Harlen, 2010).
In this section, I present a format that may be useful to specify this planning, in which the necessary activities have been integrated both for the curricular redesign and for the preparation of the proposal. The format includes all the activities planned in each of the stages of the curricular design. Also, it allows you to record the start and end dates of the activity, as well as the deadlines for the review and approval of the resulting documents (Harlen, 2010).
Additionally, a column is included that will allow the information on those responsible for each of these activities to be recorded. This planning must be prepared by the coordinator of the curriculum design committee, who will be responsible for the follow-up of the work carried out by the members of the commission, and of the work groups that arise from the said committee (Harlen, 2010).
A curriculum not only covers the subjects that are taught, or the subjects that the students take, and which are expected to be learned. It also includes the methods used. Although methods and content are often treated separately, they cannot be unlinked. The methods constitute an essential part of the curriculum since students learn both through how they are taught and through what they are taught (Livingstone, 1941).

References

De Alba, A., Gonzalez-Gaudiano, E., Lankshear, C., & Peters, M. (2000). Curriculum in the postmodern condition. New York: Peter Lang.
Diamond, Robert M. (1998). Designing and assessing courses and curricula. A practical guide, Jossey-BassPublishers, San Francisco.
Harlen, W. (2010). Principles and big ideas of science education. Hatfield, UK: Association for Science Education.
Kerr, J.F. (1968). The problem of curriculum reform. In J.F. Kerr (Ed.). Changing the curriculum (pp. 13-38). London, UK: University of London Press.
Lawton, D. L. (1975). Class, culture and the curriculum. London, UK: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Livingstone, R.W. (1941). The future in education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Pinar, William. (2004c). What is curriculum theory? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Robertson, E. (2013). The epistemic value of diversity. Journal of philosophy of education, 47(2), pp. 299-310.
Slatetterry, Patrick. (1995). Curriculum development in the Postmodern Era. New York: Garland Publishing.
Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum development: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Tyler, R. W. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

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