Junior (College 3rd year) ・Psychology ・APA ・12 Sources

Ethics are actions that are related to the professional tasks of workers. Educational, counseling, and therapeutic work are common areas where ethical norms are enforced. The ethics code is used to provide guidance to these types of fields that primarily distinguish private practitioners' activities from those of their clients. Aspirational aims that tend to direct workers to broad principles are not enforceable rules and should be considered when going over general and preamble rules with employees. This study will concentrate on the feasible measures of this worker as well as the code of ethics conduct that apply to their actions. The Preamble principle is designed to track the flow of work and process to relationships, individuals, culture, group and societies. It is also an awareness that spans the range of most applications from psychotherapy, individual counseling, bodywork modalities, conflict resolutions and community development (Poornima Bhola & Ahalya Raguram, 2016). The ethical principle of preamble standards provide processes that the workers should strive so as they do not cause any harm with people they work with. Professionally, these workers should safeguard the rights of those they interact with personally without getting emotionally attached. The principle also helps the employee not to be affected physically and mentally as they also try to help those who have such difficulties. The principles also process employees to have respect for people's dignity and rights at their workplaces. The workers, therefore, have to be aware of safeguarding those with vulnerabilities in autonomous decision making. The workers should also not despise their gender, age, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, language and their socioeconomic status. The workers, therefore, should eliminate their affection from their work and should only condone their activities only based on prejudice.
Besides the principle guiding the code of conduct at the workplace, it also processes how the workers should behave about customers. A few ethical standard rules are tagged with these principles. The workers are principled not to discriminate their clients based on sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, national origin, and age. All employees are principled not to have any relationships with the customers especially if they have had therapy classes with the clients (Ph.D., Melissa A. Bray, 2011). This principle regularly overlooks the average patient - customer relationship and emphasizes on disconnection of the connection between the client and the worker. This happens when the therapy of the client has ended; the customer engages back to the client for a personal relationship. The principles that drive this standard disconnects the aftermath connection between the two parties. The results will be that the worker and the client accompanied with a third party will have to sort out their motivations and any therapeutic issues. The employee is also restricted to have any relationship with the customer for any personal benefit. Such benefits could include physical contacts with the customer that may end up forming up relationships
The preamble principle also limits the connection between the students and the faculties where the institute is considered as a learning place environment (Robin L. Cautin & Scott O. Lilienfeld, 2015). A professional behavior should, therefore, be fair and impartial treatment should be conducted. The relationship between this parties is generally seen as miss-use of powers where the faculties or the administrative staff tend to forcefully engage the students in such affairs which may direct the student to have a sexual or romantic relationship. The principle discourages such unethical manners because it is seen as if the students are forced to such behaviors thus making some of them getting addicted to the situations. The student is also supposed to address the conflict of this relationship before engaging in such intimate affairs. When such relationships are seen, the aim of the preamble principle is to take action like withdrawing and evaluating this arrangement. The action against these two parties will be left until the student completes school and also the administrative staff will be withdrawn from teaching the same class with the person they are having an affair.

Issues and Ethical resolutions pertaining School Psychology


The moral rights of the students are that they are required to know the responsibilities of the psychologist. The truth is that the student and the doctor should not be friends because the agenda of the meeting will be broken (Christner, Edward P. Snyder & Ray W. By, 2010) this I mean, the psychologist will not be professional if they engage in any sexual or relationship activities with the client. It may be hard to for the clinician to avoid contact with the customers once they are out of work but as advised, if the contact will not hinder their performance then it is considered ethically okay. The relationship that is also considered as unethical is a sexual relationship that occurs between the psychologist and the client. This is seen mostly after a prolonged therapy program that transpired for more than two years.


Psychologist are prone to provide personal details of the clients. However, the spouses, employers, administrators and insurance companies tend to push these practitioners to disclose this information. The psychologist in this matter is supposed only to disclose such information if demanded by the law (Dawn M. Decker & Timothy S. Hartshorne, 2010). The customer should also be put in the picture whenever such information is required. The psychologist is also bound to give the client the information they are in need to know. This means the customer is not limited to confidentiality, the nature of the psychologist, the experience of the expertise and the estimated length of the therapy. The client is also supposed to be given alternative treatments and services, bound to billing and fee practices and also free to terminate the therapy session in regards to demanding the financial obligations.


It is the role of the doctor to advise or informs the client in case there any change. For instance, if the psychologist is planning to engage a trainee in the therapy session, the client should be informed as well as the name of the new practitioner. It is the role of the psychologist to be transparent to all customers about what they are about to do, and also have a discussion with the client about the how limited the information is displayed. A good example of this is when there is a case in court, and the psychologist is supposed to expose information (Timothy M. Lionetti &Edward P. Snyder, 2014). The practitioner is then intended to give real information so as to limit confusion, particularly when the police or parents request for them.


It is mandatory for the psychologists to focus on the area of their expertise particularly when they competent. For instance, in court cases where the practitioners have to be involved, it is very vital that the psychologist is familiar with such environments. If wrong information is provided, then the client's case will be harmed. Another scenario is when a court requires a letter from the practitioner that pertains families. The psychologist, in this case, should be careful to mention everything as this may result in harming the kid in this case. Such practices should entail the practitioner to be detailed and professional as this may also ruin the life of a person.

Forensic Psychology


A forensic psychology expert might find the need to use deception to get the desired results especially if the results will favor them in becoming more trusted and known and this could be because the case involves an A-list people (Beech, Graham M. Davies & Anthony R, 2014). Another reason for one to use deception is if the case is taking too long to be closed and the evidence is not enough. It is important for forensic experts to be honest and reliable in researching and gathering evidence. Integrity is vital if the system is to be trusted to get the right results.

Beneficence and nonmaleficence

A violation of this principle is when the forensic psychology expert conducts a research while having a biased attitude (Towl, David A. Crighton & Graham J, 2014). A biased approach can be because the experts know the person implicated or when a person from their race or religion is involved. Forensic psychology experts should conduct a research and do their work independent of bias, prejudice, and malignant of affiliations because every step they take will impact the lives of the people involved.


When an expert fails to understand the unique issues associated with privilege communications and confidentiality forensic work it can lead to loss of information or the information might be leaked out. If the information is leaked out the entire evidence gathering and the case will be vulnerable as vital information might fall into the wrong hands. It is crucial for forensic psychology experts to be extra careful, understand and follow all the steps of sharing information to ensure that it remains confidential and in the right hands.

Ethical violations in health psychology

Socializing with clients

Socializing with a customer can have dire consequences for both the therapist and client as this could lead to a reduction in the relational respect and professional boundaries between them (Shahe S. Kazarian &David R. Evans, 2014). A therapist can get an invitation from a client to weddings, graduation or even funerals and at times the therapist might choose to accept. As much as the decision lies with the therapist on whether to accept or decline the invitation, but it is advised that a psychologist should take the time to think carefully when it comes to the issue of socializing with clients. But if the therapist would choose to attend any event it should not be a regular habit but once in a lifetime attendance.
Sexual misconduct
Some therapist can at times abuse their power by taking advantage of clients, flirt with their customers or even come onto their customers. This is a great ethical and legal violation which could lead to a career loss and a lot of money in legal fees (Gary G. Ford, 2014). This misconduct will have adverse effects on the client's mental health, and it will derail their progress. The therapist should ensure that they maintain a strictly professional relationship. If at any point the psychologist feels that they are developing sexual attractions towards their clients they should stop having sessions with the customer and advise them to get another therapist or recommend one for them.

Text or email

Texting or emailing between therapist and a client can be an enormous violation as customers and therapists can interfere with each other's personal lives. Texting should not be an option when it comes to communication between a therapist and client. If an email is to be sent it should be during office hours, it should be professional and for specific things related to therapy, not their personal lives. If there is frequent texting and emailing between a therapist and client, it should raise a red flag.

Ethical violations in counseling and industrial organizational psychology

Professional competence

If a psychologist provides services or conducts research on an organization, then it is not in their boundaries of competence. This could have severe consequences on the people receiving this service as the psychologist is not competent enough to administer treatment. There could be some misdiagnosis and wrong treatment and therapy being administered this could make the clients get worse or even drop out of treatment (Max H. Bazerman & Ann E. Tenbrunsel, 2014). It is, therefore, important that an I-O psychologist gets the proper training in administration and personality assessments so as to avoid cases of wrong therapy and medication. If at one point the I-O psychologist encounters situations that are above their level of competence they should undertake the relevant training or refer the clients to a doctor who is trained in that area.

Withholding vital information

An industrial/organizational psychologist can withhold information of what is about to happen because the management asked them to, this could be a major violation. For instance withholding information on a planned retrenchment could bare harmful effects on the other employees. The I-O psychologists should uphold honesty and equal treatment of everyone and do their best to connect with those who have been let go to help them through the process. The psychologist should also try and convince the management of the importance of preparing their staff psychologically for a move as big as this because it will affect the lives of those affected negatively.

Multiple relationships

If an I-O psychologist develops sexual relationships with multiple employees, this is a violation that will evoke havoc in the organization when it comes to light. Those involved will be negatively affected which might lead to poor performance. Some of the clients will even go as far as harming themselves or others. Apart from consumers hurting themselves, the psychologist is bound to lose their job and even their license (Nancy J. Niles, 2012). Doctors are supposed to avoid relationships that could destroy their professional performance or harm their clients. Sexual relationships are not accepted even when it involves two employees, having sex with a current employee or client is not accepted as this would cause more damage to the customer and a risk of them dropping out. Psychologists should ensure that they uphold professional standards of conduct. They should take responsibility for their actions and behaviors and remember that the needs of the client to get well come before their desires especially in a big organization.

Remuneration and Compensation

I/O psychologist, most of the time, are asked by the management to conduct a job evaluation so as to determine compensation levels and ranges. A doctor would commit a violation by being biased in giving high compensation levels to those whom they have developed a close relationship or the ones that they favor. It can also be the reverse a psychologist can decide to give low compensation levels to those that they dislike or are not of the same race as them. The I/O psychologist should instead point out pay discrimination cases and give the compensation levels unbiased and with no prejudice. They should act as advocates for the employees as they tend to confide in him more.


Most of the time ethical and legal boundaries can be rather difficult for the therapists and clients implement because of a lot of barriers. Conducting therapy can never be perfect there are bound to be some pitfalls along the way. But it is much easier to protect everyone involved in the treatment that is the client and the therapist. It is not wrong to develop a friendship as a matter of fact I do believe it is possible to develop friendship within the proper bounds of professionalism. It is accepted to use self-disclosure and let your guard down as a therapist inappropriate moments but when boundaries have violated the client or the therapist is disrespected, and danger can result from this violation. As psychologists start their sessions, they should ensure that they can deliver the best service without crossing boundaries that will affect the client negatively. The doctor should make sure that they are unbiased especially forensic experts when researching to get evidence this will aid in stopping an adverse effect on the life of the ones involved. When a therapist or a client feel that they are no longer comfortable having sessions together, it is advised that the therapist should recommend another therapist for the customer and stop their sessions immediately or the client should request for another therapist. With this done we would be saving ourselves the trouble of lawsuits and customers harming themselves.


Beech, G. M. (2014). Forensic Psychology: Crime, Justice, Law, Interventions. John Wiley & Sons publishers.
Christner, E. P. (2010). A Practical Guide to Building Professional Competencies in School Psychology. Springer Science & Business Media.
Evans, S. S. (2015). Handbook of Cultural Health Psychology. Academic Press,
Ford, G. G. (2015). Ethical Reasoning in the Mental Health Professions. CRC Press publishers.
Hartshorne, D. M. (2010). Ethics and Law for School Psychologists. John Wiley & Sons publishers.
Lilienfeld, R. L. (2015). Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology Set, Volume 1. John Wiley & Sons.
Niles, N. J. (2012). Basic Concepts of Health Care Human Resource Management. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Ph.D., M. A. (2011). The Oxford Handbook of School Psychology. Oxford University Press.
Raguram, P. B. (2016). Ethical Issues in Counselling and Psychotherapy Practice: Walking the Line. Springer publishes.
Snyder, T. M. (2014). A Practical Guide to Building Professional Competencies in School Psychology. Springer Science & Business Media.
Tenbrunsel, M. H. (2014). Blind Spots: Why We Fail to Do What's Right and What to Do about It. Princeton University Press.
Towl, D. A. (2014). Forensic Psychology. John Wiley & Sons publishers.

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