High School ・Psychology ・MLA ・4 Sources

Marijuana is known to be one of the most potent psychoactive medications used worldwide. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of 483 components present in cannabis plants, including sativa, indica and ruderalis, which improves rapid consumer tolerance and contributes to chronic benefits (Kumar, Chambers & Pertwee, 2001). It works on the cannabinergic structure of the body, resulting in adverse inflammation and other associated diseases. Pharmacology of Marijuana is complicated because of the existence of a wide range of cannabinoids. The receptors are located in three areas. They include the limbic, cerebral cortex and cerebellum systems. Anandamine neurotransmitters cause a pain-relieving effect particularly in  brain but affect the normal functioning in various areas (Ashton, 2001). THC also inhibits the dopamine neurotransmitters affecting pleasure and pain feelings.


Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is accountable for the psychoactive outcomes that are experienced from short-term consumption of marijuana. On the other hand, cannabinoid 2 (CB2) is liable for the inflammatory and adverse contracted and immune diseases (Huestis at al., 2001). They are also associated with brain receptors such as dopamine D2, serotonin, cholinergic, and adenosine A2A. It triggers the activation of reward receptors that control vigorous pleasing activities commonly identified as recreational.

Route of Administration

Marijuana can be administered through four different avenues. They include smoking, vaporization, orally and through the skin. Each course takes advantage of the routes as efficiently as possible to create the necessary effect. Consideration of the routes takes into account the bioavailability, dose precision, and inception to time, the effect time, the value and reliability feature as well as the archetypal medication (Huestis at al., 2001). It is smoked through pipes, inhaled through gas and vapor, through capsules and injections.


The presence of Marijuana in the body can be identified in drug tests carried out on urine, blood, and saliva. Regarding half-life, THC takes a significantly longer time because of its level of solubility (Yamamoto et al., 20013). Therefore, any identification in the body takes place close to 3 to four days but may take longer depending on the frequency of application.


Initially, the immediate effects of consuming marijuana would include moderation or ecstasy. The implications of higher doses would include disrupted body image, constant delusions, hallucinations, and ataxia (Yamamoto et al., 20013). Average doses of about 5.5 mg THC had a significantly lower effect on creativity. On the other hand, high doses of approximately 20 mg THC caused an effect on convergent intelligence.

Side Effects

Marijuana has been identified to cause pharmacology and psychological effects. Among the most common side effects include short-term corporeal and nervous effects such as an increase in the heartbeat rate, reduction in blood pressure and psychomotor synchronization (Yamamoto et al., 20013). Increased and unmonitored use of the drug may lead to changes in body heat, paranoia, psychosis and constant hallucination both in the audio and visual areas.

Drug Interactions

Constant interactions between marijuana and glucose metabolism have been directed towards fasting insulin concentration of the CB1 receptor indicators that could elevate the insulin sensitivity as well as adiponectin levels (Huestis at al., 2001). It also interacts with hormones such as estrogen, androgens, and luteinizing hormones inhibiting the receptor developments and growth. It causes sharp reduction of testosterone and other growth hormones. On the other hand, Cannabinoids in marijuana may inhibit the growth of cancerous cells in different parts of the body such as the brain.


Contraindication of marijuana is visible in people experiencing psychosis, ischemic heart ailments, kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, immunological disease, eating disorders, and other compulsive behaviors (Ashton, 2001).

Therapeutic Use

Researchers have evaluated the therapeutic effects of marijuana Cannabinoids particularly in cases of epileptic children through its immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Its therapeutic role in prostate cancer is also under evaluation owing to the effect of Cannabinoids that reduces the androgen receptor content (Kumar, Chambers & Pertwee, 2001).


Ashton, C. H. (2001). Pharmacology and effects of cannabis: a brief review. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 178(2), 101-106.

Huestis, M. A., Gorelick, D. A., Heishman, S. J., Preston, K. L., Nelson, R. A., Moolchan, E. T., & Frank, R. A. (2001). Blockade of effects of smoked marijuana by the CB1-selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716. Archives of general psychiatry, 58(4), 322-328.

Kumar, R. N., Chambers, W. A., & Pertwee, R. G. (2001). Pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids. Anaesthesia, 56(11), 1059-1068.

Yamamoto, I., Watanabe, K., Matsunaga, T., Kimura, T., Funahashi, T., & Yoshimura, H. (2003). Pharmacology and toxicology of major constituents of marijuana—on the metabolic activation of cannabinoids and its mechanism. Journal of Toxicology: Toxin Reviews, 22(4), 577-589.

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