Social Relationships

Junior (College 3rd year) ・Psychology ・APA ・4 Sources

Lischetzke and Eid (2006) did study to determine the basis for extraverts' contentment. According to their findings, extraverts are happier than introverts under normal conditions. The researchers looked into the impact that personal emotions play in shaping an individual's happiness. The combined hypothesis proposed that mood management may be the key to extraverts' happiness. The study validated the hypothesis using self-appraised and peer-rated trait approaches. The ability to modulate personal emotions was shown to be connected to extraversion and a mood attribute known as the pleasant-unpleasant characteristic in the study. Also, the researchers noted that mood repair is not associated with the connection between extraversion and the pleasantness (Lischetzke & Eid, 2006). Self-appraisal reports produced similar results citing that better mood regulation is linked to happiness in extraverts. Another experiment within the same study indicated that extraverts maintained positive affect stability when confronted with affectively uncertain circumstance. The researchers found that introverts did not assume a positive affect control when presented with similar conditions of uncertainty as extraverts. The research by Lischetzke and Eid (2006) affirmed that the ability of extraverts to regulate their moods was their strength in retaining happiness in their lives. Besides, the capability of the extraverts to remain optimistic and assume a positive perspective in difficult and uncertain situation helped them remain happy for a longer time as compared to introverts who are likely to be pessimistic in uncertain situations.

Lucas, Le, and Dyrenforth (2008) carried out a research to ascertain the idea that sociability did not contribute to the high level of happiness amongst the extraverts. The study stated that in understanding emotions and personality of an individual, extraversion and positive affect play a significant role. The study used temperament models that showed a direct association between positive affect and extraversion. The instrumental models used in the research revealed that the link between extraversion and positive affect is facilitated by other supplementary processes. The researchers used a different model to ascertain the claimed posited by the temperamental and instrumental models. The mediation model was used to provide results that would confirm the postulations made earlier in the study. The results of the mediation model showed that the extraverts' engagement in numerous social activities enabled them to have a higher positive affect than the introverts who are selective and engage in few social tasks. Another model used in the study was the person-by-situation relation model and it showed a positive perspective amongst the extraverts than introverts (Lucas, Le, & Dyrenforth, 2008). The ability to assume positive perspectives while interacting with different situations gave the extraverts a higher chance of obtaining a higher degree of happiness from the interaction. The model showed that introverts are likely to keep things to themselves and minimize their interactions with situations hence their chances of acquiring a higher degree of happiness are low. The instrumental model used in the study provided a weak evidence to the link between extraversion and positive affect. However, even after adjusting the parameters to cater for the limitations posed by the instrumental model, average link between positive affect and extraversion was obtained (Lucas, Le, & Dyrenforth, 2008). The conclusion of their study revealed that the extraverts are happier than introverts due to the ability to maintain positive perspective when interacting with different situations. Also, the researchers concluded that there is a connection between the positive affect and extraversion.

Tamir (2009) carried out a study to reveal the differential preferences for happiness. In the study, she explored the aspect of extraversion and the ability of an individual to regulate their emotions in an effort to obtain happiness. Tamir asserted that what motivates people to remain happy remains varied amongst individuals. Most extraverts prefer engaging in activities that contribute to their happiness while introverts dislike those activities. Tamir asserts that the motives behind the involvement in happiness-related tasks are different for introverts and extraverts (Tamir, 2009). An introvert may engage in such activities since they are mandatory or they do not have another choice but not as a source of their happiness. Besides other conditions of the happiness-related tasks such as being mandatory, an extravert would engage so as to obtain happiness. Tamir findings suggest that people who have low extraversion characteristics may have little motivation which translates to low happiness in life (Tamir, 2009).

Tkach and Lyubomirsky (2006) (2006) embarked on a study to determine how people pursued happiness. In the study, Tkach and Lyubomirsky wanted to show the relationship between the personality of an individual and the different strategies they use to keep themselves happy. The participants of the study were required to present the strategies they employed to remain happy while undertaking a variety of activities. Some of the strategies used included active and passive leisure, mental control, association, religion, and partying. Mental control strategies were found to have the highest effect when maintaining a happy life. The study found out that personality of an individual and their ability to have strong mental control is the key to happiness in their lives (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006). Associating with others and direct endeavors to seek happiness contributed significantly to bringing happiness to the life of the individual.


Lischetzke, T., & Eid, M. (2006). Why extraverts are happier than introverts: The role of mood regulation. Journal of Personality, 74(4), 1127-1162.

Lucas, R. E., Le, K., & Dyrenforth, P. S. (2008). Explaining the extraversion/positive affect relation: Sociability cannot account for extraverts’ greater happiness. Journal of Personality, 76(3), 385-414.

Tamir, M. (2009). Differential preferences for happiness: Extraversion and trait – a consistent emotion regulation. Journal of Personality, 77(2), 447-470.

Tkach, C., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006). How do people pursue happiness? Relating personality, happiness-increasing strategies, and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(2), 183-225.

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