The nine questions

Sophomore (College 2nd year) ・Sociology ・MLA

How does non-human primates claim to be culturally capable??

The recognition is that non-human primates can also learn and send out social information. Furthermore, animals are able to demonstrate their basic ways of creativity and imitation. The primates thus can express their traditions from generation to generation socially.

What are the limits on the acquisition of a complex culture by primates?

Many people consider that animal culture is distinct from human customs because there is no proof of regulatory conformity. Primates, however, have a struggle to mimic their transmission traditions. They also have the limitation of the cognitive ability for generation of representations and misinterpretations.

What is the relationship between material subsistence and social organization?

The material subsistence allows for the reliance of the natural resources for the provision of the essential needs through hunting and gathering while the social organization enhances cohesion among the individuals and the social groups via structure, the division of labor or sexuality. Populations strive to develop stable relations with their environment through interactions by making a living. They utilize various modes of productions which vary with the cultures of social organizations.

What is the core assumption behind the Westermarck hypothesis?

It provides a conclusive support regarding the mechanisms of avoiding inbreeding among humans. They develop a strong insensate sexual attraction among individuals who grew up together in the infancy and the early childhood stage. Therefore, people avoid mating with those who may resemble their other siblings to hinder the inbreeding.

What is the tension between ideas and material forces in explaining why people do what they do?

Ideas have an impact on changes in societies such as an outcome of the application of material forces. The tension creates social conflicts and struggles which facilitate progress that influences individuals to the activities that they are doing. Thus, the man’s quest for fulfilling their essential needs promotes the generation of ideas and implementing the material forces to engage in tasks that meet their goals.

Why are some societies organized around females and others trace descent through males?

Cultures allow people to employ the principle of the unilineal descent to trace their lineage in one line of ancestors as either male or female. Kinship traditions vary among societies as some values to associate with their father’s kin group while others adopt their mothers in the matrilineal. Moreover, the economic activities of a community determine their lineage for the property inheritance priorities. 

What is the difference between gender ideals and sexual behavior?

Gender ideals prescribe both males and females’ expected acts in the society through their dress codes, conducts, and how they speak. It perceives women to portray the feminine ways while the males being more masculine, aggressive, and stronger. However, sexual behavior involves any activities in a group that may arouse sex. It may also be a process where both humans and animals can express their sexuality.

What is the role of revenge in motivating war, especially amongst tribal societies?

Paying back as a punishment for a previously perceived slight often leads to war among the ethnic groups. Moreover, it may develop a chain of endless fights as a way of expressing their grievances. Thus, societies make battle decisions through revenging before addressing their fears.

How is religious belonging associated with group success?

Religious groups enforce practices with the enormous potential of influencing success among its members. Religion provides morals that can assist in taking tough life decisions with anticipated successful outcomes. Religious belonging instills self-discipline, resilience, and the ability to work with others as a group which acts as a forecast of success.

Is mental illness social or biological?

Mental illness is biological since it exists before its discovery by the societies. Moreover, it is an individual’s property rather than cultural due to the irresponsible habits. It is a disease of the body that biologically emerges from the psychological disorder of the brain abnormalities.

Works Cited

Richard, W.B. “Culture in Great Apes: Using Intricate Complexity in Feeding Skills to Trace the Evolutionary Origin of Human Technical Prowess.” The Royal Society Publishing, 2007, pp. 577 – 585.

Shor, E. The Westermarck Hypothesis, and the Israeli Kibbutzim: Reconciling Contrasting Evidence. 18, Jan. 2014.

Vale, G.L., Kendal, R.L., Carr, K., & Dean, L.G. “The cultural Capacity of Human and Nonhuman Primates: Social Learning, innovation, and cumulative Culture.” Oxford: Academic Press, 2017, pp. 475-508

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