Various Stages in Development and Growth

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The research centered on the participants in the RTs who came from different emotional distraction groups. Puberty can be defined as the process by which a sexually immature child's body transforms into an adult sexual reproductive cable through a series of complex hormonal events. Sexually maturing is correlated with the levels of sex steroids that occur at a few functional levels, including gonad, pituitary, adrenal gland and hypothalamus, as a consequence of modifications that are complex in nature. The many physical changes as a result of the series of development brought about by puberty are thoroughly documented by Maigshall and Tanner (291).

Stress can be defined as the state when an individual realizes that demands from his or her environment go beyond their capacity to adapt. Studies of stress mainly pay attention to the events which occur in a given environment which are judged consensually as mentally demanding the ability of an individual to cope (Cohen et al, 3-26). Stress can be prevented by application of the following techniques, cognitive restructuring, relaxation, assertiveness training, meditation, visualization and disclosure just to mention but a few. A hypothesis known as the stress-buffering hypothesis was proposed by psychiatrist Sidney Cobb and physician John Cassel in 1976. According to both of them, Individuals who had strong social ties were protected from stressful events whose effect was potentially pathogenic.

According to Erikson the psychosocial stages are categorized into eight stages, (Erikson, 1-24)

Psychosocial stage one also known as infancy (birth to 18 months): “This is where a sense of trust is developed in children when caregivers offer care, affection and reliability. When any of these crucial factors luck it leads to mistrust”.

Psychosocial stage two also known as early childhood (2 to 3 years), “At this stage the need to develop a sense of independence and personal control over physical skills is developed. Success leads to feelings of independence, shame and doubt are feelings brought by as a result of failure”.

Psychosocial stage three also known as preschool (3 to 5 years), “At this stage children need to begin believing confidently that they posses control and power over the environment and succeeding at this will lead to a sense of purpose. Exerting too much power will lead to disapproval and this will result to a sense of guilt”.

Psychosocial stage four also known as school (6 to 11 years), “At this stage there is need to cope with new academic and social demands where success will lead to a sense of competence while failure will result in feelings of inferiority”.

Psychosocial stage five also known adolescence (11 to 18 years), “A sense of self and personal identity needs to be developed by teens at this stage, failure will result to a weak sense of self and role confusion”.

Psychosocial stage six also known young adulthood (12 to 18 years), “Young adults need To form loving and intimate relationships with other people where success will lead to strong relationships and failure will result loneliness and isolation”.

Psychosocial stage seven also known as middle adulthood (19 to 40 years), “Adults need to nature and create things that will outlast them by having kids or creating positive change that benefit other people where success will lead to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure will result in shallow involvement in the world”.

Psychosocial stage eight also known as maturity (65 years), as old adults look back on their lives they need to feel a sense of fulfillment, success at this stage results to feelings of wisdom while failure leads to despair, regret and bitterness.

According to Lawrence Kohlberg the three levels of morality are, (Colby et al, 124)

  1. PRECONVENTIONAL- Here is where a person obeys because there are compelled by figures in authority to obey. At this level morality is judged on the essence of repercussions.
  2. CONVENTIONAL- At this level an individual’s concern mostly lies in what their peer’s opinion is. Helping and pleasing people is what they want as they develop a self internal idea of what can be deemed good or bad.
  3. POSTCONVENTIONAL- At this level an individual judges morality in theoretical principles and not by rules that lead the society. Ethical choices are beyond society’s laws where an individual searches in them to find answers rather than forming conclusions using outside sources of authority.

Works Cited

Cohen S, Kessler RC, Gordon UL, eds. Measuring Stress: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; (1995):3-26.

Colby, Anne, et al. “A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment.”Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, vol. 48, no. 1/2, 1983, pp. 1–124.,

Erikson, Erik H. “Youth: Fidelity and Diversity.”Daedalus, vol. 117, no. 3, 1988, pp. 1–24.

MAIGSHAI, L, W.A. & TANNER, J.M. Variations in pattern of 'pubertal changes in' girls. Archives of Disease in Childhood, (1969) pp. 44, 291.

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