Advantages and Disadvantages of Marijuana

Junior (College 3rd year) ・Healthcare&Medicine ・APA

Marijuana also known as cannabis is a psychoactive drug from the cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes. Marijuana mainly is used for its mental physical effect, such as creating a high feeling. The psychoactive part of cannabis is known as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). It is commonly known that medical marijuana aids in managing terminal sickness. Hence, there is the need to embrace and legalize it. Some of the diseases include cancer and glaucoma. Research show that medical marijuana can be used to treat epilepsy, especially in young patients. Epilepsy is a dangerous disease as it causes lack of consciousness leading to fainting of the patient. It has been proven that Cannabidiol (CBD), a marijuana component that does not contain the psychoactive property, is used to treat epilepsy and seizures. Lacking the psychoactive property means that it does not get one high, hence, is used more as medicine than a recreational drug.

Asthma, which is at times referred to as hypersensitivity, is a medical condition that causes short of breath, chest tightness and pain, as well as sneezing. Research has shown that marijuana helps asthma patients, this is because it has dilating effect on human airways. It is a bit contradicting as smoking is unhealthy to a human lung but smoking marijuana is beneficial as opposed to smoking tobacco and cigarettes. Alzheimer’s disease is a mental disease that mostly affects the aged. This occurs because of deterioration of the brain. It is the main cause of premature senility. It causes loss of memory among the old. Marijuana used in the medical way is used to ease the symptoms of Alzheimer.

Some of the symptoms that are eased by the use of marijuana are anxiety, depression, insomnia, and hallucinations (Hall & Degenhardt, 2009). It has been proven that marijuana used in the right amounts reduces production of bête-amyloidal proteins. What is more, scientists believe that this protein is the main cause of the progression of the disease, hence, marijuana delays the onset of the disease. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease whose real cause is yet to be established. It causes muscle stiffen and pain. Research found out patients who used marijuana in their initial stage of the disease and who experienced less pain and had better sleep quality as opposed to those who did not use marijuana. Menstruation craps is a technical disease that causes women to experience abdominal pain during their menstruation period.

Scientists found that women who experience severe cramps, after using marijuana, the pain subsided. HIV/AIDS is a disease that compromises the immunity of a human body. Its cure is yet to be established. In a study of positive individuals, those who smoked marijuana had a better and stringer immune system. This was because of better sleep, weight gain, better mood, as well as less neuropathic pain (Hall & Degenhardt, 2009). Cancer is a disease that involves an abdominal growth of cell, which may also invade new parts of the body. Some of the symptoms include occurrence of lumps, abdominal bleeding, as well as prolonged cough. In addition, animal studies have shown that marijuana extracts can kill certain cancerous cells. It has been seen that marijuana (THC) also is of importance in reducing the rate of cell growth. Therefore, cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy use marijuana to prevent nausea. Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness. It has been proven that THC that is a marijuana component has been used to reduce eye pressure, it also reduces blood pressure. Furthermore, it has also been noted that marijuana used in the recommended amounts can preserve the nerves. Human animal studies showed that cannabinoids are used to elevate pain from patient suffering from chronic disease.

On the other hand, marijuana also has its adverse effects which include decrease in memory, dryness of the mouth, impaired motor skills, as well as eye reddening. Some of the side effects experienced by long-term users of the drug are episode of acute psychosis. Others experienced shorter physical and neurological effects, including increase in the heart rate. It is obvious that if medical attention is not taken, the patient can easily get a heart attack. Increased appetite and excessive consumption of food would cause the patient suffer from obesity due to over eating. What is more, Low blood pressure, as well as short-term lapses of memory, are some of the hazardous effects. Marijuana is used in different medical ways, including smoking. Smoking is inhaling vaporized cannabinoids from small pipes. The second way is through vaporizers where the plant is heated to a high temperature without burning it. The vapor that emitted is used as the medicine. Also patient can make cannabis tea which includes small amounts of an oil called THC(lipophilic). Moreover, another way is by adding the plant to different kinds of food, such as baked foods and butter.

In conclusion, long-term, heavy use of cannabis is proven to be a leading cause of reduction in the quality of life. Cannabis is a good resource in the medical field if used in the correct amounts and for a short duration of time to avoid addiction and interdependence.

Legislation of Marijuana

Since the 20th century, many countries had put in place laws that were against the cultivation and usage of marijuana. This was because of misusing marijuana for recreational purposes. Nevertheless, there are many circumstances handling the usage of marijuana which were legalized. Due to some medical benefits of small amounts of marijuana, some jurisdictions have reduced penalties on people found to possess small amounts of marijuana. In some countries, such as Netherlands, where marijuana was legalized, restrictions were put in place. The country closed coffee shops that were near secondary schools, as well as cannabis coffee shops. In order to cub the illegal selling and usage of cannabis, some jurisdictions created free and voluntary treatment programs for the frequent users. By so doing, the amount used by each person is regulated. In such a country where such programs have been put in place, possession of small amounts of marijuana may attract huge penalties. In the recent years, marijuana has been legalized to be used in the pharmaceutical industries in making some medical drugs. The US state, Washington, was the first state to officially legalize the use of marijuana in 2012. In 2013 the 1st marijuana group was allowed legally to be formed. Marijuana in most states have been legalized for medical reasons. The cause of legalizing medical marijuana experienced lots of oppositions in 2005 when the US supreme court ruled that the federal government had the right to ban the use cannabis, even in the states with compassionate laws. In January, 2010, New Jersey was the fourth country to officially legalize medical marijuana usage. The law allowed patients having serious and terminal sicknesses to use small amounts of the substance (Sullum, 2016). This included illnesses such as cancer, Lou Gehrig’s disease, as well as HIV/AIDS. The government allowed doctors to prescribe marijuana to the chronic disease patients. The government, however, forbade the patients from growing and buying marijuana of their own. What is more, the bill also limited the patients not to use more than two ounces of marijuana per month. The assembly member who sponsored the legalization stated that he believed that this bill would be a model to many countries. Today, although usage of marijuana for leisure is highly discouraged, medical marijuana is widely accepted. For patients with terminal or debilitating medical conditions who are in judgment of health care professionals marijuana usage may be beneficial. The law states that they shall not be arrested, prosecuted, or subjected to any criminal suctions. The legalization of marijuana was a good step toward monitoring the amount used by each patient. This resulted in the improvement of the patient’s health. As result, in 2015, almost half of the people in the United States had tried marijuana, 12% had used it in the past year, and 7.3% had used it in the past month (Sullum, 2016). In 2014, daily marijuana usage amongst the US college students had reached its highest level since records began in 1980, rising from 3.5% in 2007 to 5.9% in 2014 and had surpassed daily cigarette use.

Interest Groups of Marijuana and their Arguments

Marijuana is a drug of high medical value. However, the Marijuana industry faces many legal challenges due to the large number of groups who want to use it illegally. One of the interested groups is the pharmaceutical industry. This industry claims that the non-psychoactive part of cannabis, known as the THC, is an important component of a cannabidiol-based drug called Epidolex. This drug is administered to the epilepsy patients, especially the young children. An example of such an industry is the GW pharmaceutical industry which is a British company. The companies claim that they use cannabis because it is a readily available material that is rich with THC. More so, the company argue epidolex drug as very efficient and healthy because the component they use in making the drug does not get one high. They also argue that marijuana used in the industry has created a lot of job opportunities as there have been many research industries built to investigate health value of cannabis (d’Souza, Sewell, & Ranganathan, 2009).

Police unions are also an interested group in the marijuana industry. Due to the fact that marijuana is not legalized to be used for pleasure, people caught in possession of it attract high penalties. The police union, on the other hand, benefits from the fine imposed on this people. They claim that in order for the accused to learn how to obey the law it is of benefit that they are fined heavily. It is from the fines that the police get money to finance their budgets. On the other hand, some police officers abuse cannabis. They justify their act by saying that the nature of their job sometimes forces them to use it. What is more, they argue that when one is sent for very risky missions they need to use the drug to contain the fear and anxiety. The entertainment industry is another interested group in marijuana. They are among the largest groups that are fighting tirelessly to ensure legalization of marijuana. They argue that everyone should be allowed to live their lives as they desire (d’Souza, Sewell, & Ranganathan, 2009). In addition, they also claim that legalization of marijuana would increase job opportunities as there would be more farmers cultivating it. Also, it, would result in more industries to process marijuana and, as a result, creating more job opportunities. Their drive to such an argument is the profit they would attain from selling marijuana. On the other hand, there are some entrepreneurs who are strongly against legalization of the drug. This is because of the fear that they might lose the beer fans for the marijuana.

Private prison corporations and prison guard unions are also interested parties of marijuana. Private prison corporate makes billions of cash by incarnating people who have been imprisoned for drug abuse such as marijuana. Prison companies spend lots of cash back rolling pro drug war politician shave used front groups like the American Legistrative Exchange council to pass harsh sentencing requirement for drug crimes. Prisoners, on the other hand, are interested groups of marijuana as well. Most of the prisoners that use it claim that it helps reduce anger and grief. Some argue that they got victimized and end up imprisoned. Such thoughts became a great source of grief and anger for prisoners and with the help of marijuana those thoughts fade away and they are able to live a better life. Ease is also an interested group, especially in countries where marijuana is legalized. This is a delivery service.

Patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses or those with incurable diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, are among the largest interest group of marijuana. Most of them argue that they get consolation from the use of marijuana. They claim that it works as the best pain killer as it does not only make the pain to subside but also makes one forget their condition and feel high. This, as they claim, is the best feeling bearing in mind, there is no remedy for their ailments. Some out of the desperate nature of their situation argue that the high feeling is the best way to wait upon their death.

Encode is a European coalition for just and effect drug policy. A coalition was founded in 1993. The coalition brings together citizens who are not comfortable with the prohibition of marijuana. Actually, this group believes that laws of drug prohibition are against human freedom and their right to privacy. The coalitions’ members are mostly the marijuana addicts. Marijuana policy project is another marijuana interest group. This is among the leading marijuana organization in the US that is strongly against marijuana policies. The members of this group believe that the greatest harm caused by marijuana is imprisonment. They claim that imprisonment brings more harm than good when a marijuana user is imprisoned. Because of this, they work tirelessly to remove criminal penalties for marijuana user’s, they also focus on building of rehabilitation centers for the addicts. The vision of this project is for marijuana to legalize just as alcohol (d’Souza, Sewell, & Ranganathan, 2009). Leap is an institution that deals with law enforcement. This international organization works tirelessly to restore the dignity of the judiciary and the police force. They wish to do this by abolishing policies and laws that make police officers arrest marijuana users. The main activity of leap institution is to educate the public, as well as the media personnel, on the failure of the current drugs policies. Norml is also another national organization that is meant to make reforms on marijuana laws. This group started in 1970, and it is among the popular marijuana legalized group. This is an American organization although it has grown in the recent years to an international group. This group has been the voice of marijuana lovers. It has been strongly against the arrest of marijuana users and also heavy penalties imposed on them. It has now grown to involve many countries such as Canada, Spain, and south Africa. Stop the drug war is also a foundation that is interested in marijuana. It started in 1993. This organization believes in regulation of marijuana usage rather than banning and prohibiting of its usage. The main aim of the institution is to create awareness of consequences of drug prohibition by publishing newsletters and articles on their website, as well as writing newspapers for international levels. They believe that if people get aware of the advantage of having marijuana legal, this would play a key role towards achieving their objective. Drug sense is also a foundation founded in 1995 and mainly operates online. The organization works to create awareness with media projects, such as educative programmers, seminars, and advertisement.

Strategies to Enhance Public Policy Environment

Environmental policies are commitments of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues. Many companies in the resent past were known to be less concerned about the issues of environmental conservation. However, this has changed after many campaigns by the environmental friendly institutions and heavy penalties imposed on institution that pollute the environment by the government. It is, therefore, important to put down strategies to ensure that our environment remains safe. One of the strategies that has to be put in place is the corporate environmental strategy. The marijuana industry should integrate environmental issues while making companies’ decisions (Sullum, 2016). This includes the position of laying any marijuana investments, as well as the choice of technology to be used. For example, the pharmaceutical industries dealing with marijuana should ensure safety disposal of its waste. This is always taken into consideration when making the choice of putting up the company.

Functional strategy is a second strategy that should be use to enhance environmental preservation. This strategy ensures that the marijuana industry takes environmental friendly purchasing, production, and marketing processes. What is more, this ensures that the production levels taken by the marijuana industry are environmentally-friendly. This includes ensuring treating of gaseous waste before releasing it to the environment. In addition, the strategy also ensures that liquid waste, such as wastewater, is treated before being released to the rivers or to the soil. Purchase environmental strategy is a mechanism that mainly encompasses the long-term supplying chain management. This is a strategy put in place to encourage reuse and recycling of resources. The strategy ensures that the resources are not misused. What is more, the company should employ production processes that ensure energy preservation. Energy is also a component of the environment which should be preserved as well. The company should ensure that energy resources, such as electricity and fuels, are used scarcely. Personnel environmental strategy is a very effective strategy in the marijuana industry.

This strategy requires the staff dealing with marijuana to be educated on the need to secure the environment. It is by the use of this strategy that the staff is educated on the need of having a healthy and safe environment (Hall & Degenhardt, 2009). Moreover, many environmental skills are taught. They include proper disposal of marijuana waste, as well as less wasteful production. It is in this strategy that ensures that marijuana staff, especially in the pharmaceutical industries, is taught on water saving production processes. Marijuana company should also ensure that the marijuana farmers use environmental friendly strategies. This strategy ensures that the technology used in farming should be environmentally friendly. Example if the company wishes to use mechanized way of farming, they should ensure less gaseous emissions. In addition, the machines should be in good state to avoid oil spillage as this would pollute the soil which is part of the environment. The company ensures that the fertilizers used are organic.

This would also preserve the water as most fertilizers are washed away to rivers when it rains. This will consequently protect the marine environment as fertilizers brought from farms kill most of the aquatic life through facilitating fast growth of photons, hence, reducing oxygen levels in water. Pesticides and insect side used should also be environmental friendly. Competitive environmental strategy is a process that incorporates environmental preservation, as well as stepping up the company to outdo its competitors. This strategy ensures that any steps taken by the marijuana industry towards upgrading their products are environmentally-friendly, such as packaging and selling. The packets used should be environmentally-friendly. In addition, the structures marijuana companies are to put in place should be environmentally-friendly in the sense that they should be built in a good way to avoid them from collapsing which would destroy the environment.

Expected Interplay between Demanders and Suppliers, Interest Groups and Public Policy Environment

Interplay refers to the ways in which two or more things affect each other. Demanders, suppliers, and interest groups have one common interest which is money. If the demanders can come to terms and agree on legalization of medical marijuana, then there would be two results observed. One is that there would be a good interaction if the three groups reason together and conceder it appropriate to allow legalization of medical marijuana. Demanders, such as the sick, would benefit greatly as they would not use marijuana secretly. The legalization would result in the sick confidently accessing marijuana medical advice from legalized medics. This would consequently result in improvement of their health. Suppliers, such as the pharmaceutical industry, would also have a financial benefit. Interest groups such as the police union would benefit from having less illegal marijuana users, especially those who use it for medical purposes (d’Souza, Sewell, & Ranganathan, 2009). On the other hand, legalization of medical marijuana would result in more financial benefit to medical marijuana suppliers, as well as demanders.

This would translate to a negative impact on the interest groups who would benefit more from legalization of marijuana without any restriction. Total legalization of marijuana would also affect demanders’ suppliers, as well as interest groups, in different ways. Demanders would increase in number exposing more income to suppliers. Nevertheless, there would be a shoot up of the number of suppliers. This would consequently result in less income per supplier. On the other hand, interest groups would be affected differently. Some would greatly benefit while others may be affected adversely. For example, the police union would be affected in two different ways. One is that that the revenue they get from fining the illegal marijuana users would be no more present. However, their responsibility of protecting the current law of arresting marijuana users would be no more urgent.

Organizations that are put in place to educate and campaign to ensure that marijuana is legalized would be lost. This would have a negative impact on them as the organizations would have to be close down as a result of completion of their intended purpose. In conclusion, medical marijuana should be legalized as this would greatly improve the medical industry in treating many diseases. In addition, the legalization would result in more marijuana research institutes that consequently would lead to advancement in the medical industry as more medical value of marijuana would be discovered. Apart from the medical benefits, medical marijuana legalization would create more job opportunities consequently leading to the growth of the countries’ economies. If speaking about patients, marijuana can really make the burden of a disease much lighter.


d’Souza, D. C., Sewell, R. A., Ranganathan, M. (2009). Cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: Human studies. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 259 (7): 413–431.

Sullum, J. (2016). What's the cost: The federal war on patients. Americans for Safe Acces.

Hall, W., Degenhardt, L (2009). Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use. Lancet. 374 (9698): 1383–91

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