Anemia and its Interventions

Senior (College 4th year) ・Healthcare&Medicine ・APA ・9 Sources

Today anemia is one of the most common health conditions affecting billions of people in the whole world. However, by its nature, the issue has drawn little attention. It is necessary to study this disorder and find means of its prevention and treatment to reduce the associated health risks. Hence, the study is developed along the dictates of this thesis - Positive lifestyle can significantly diminish the possibility of anemia development as well as effective intervention practices accelerate the process of recovery. In turn, providing teaching points for the patient will bring about better results of the intervention.

Impact of Negative Lifestyle Choices

As earlier stated, anemia is the deficiency of red blood cells. Anemia used to be a referred to as the pallor of the skin and mucous membrane. However, with the advancement in medical research, anemia became the disease that could be easily detected and explained. Therefore, it is critical to study anemia to know the effects and the major causes of this disease. Lifestyle is a factor that should be considered when studying the concept of anemia. Our daily meal schedule is significant factors that could lead to the development of the condition. A balanced diet is required because continuous intake of meals lacking iron can lead its deficiencies in the body. Additionally, anemia is a short-term blood disorder which can become dangerous if not well monitored and treated. It is, therefore, necessary to control the disease as soon as it is discovered (Changes, 2011). The three main types occur in humans as a result of the limited amount of blood, decrease in red blood cell production and increased in the rate of deteriorations of red blood cells. Statistics show that globally anemia affects 1.61 billion people who correspond to 24.8% of the world population. It is high among preschool-age children with 47.4% and lowest among men with a percentage of 12.7, (Camaschella, 2015).

The most common types of anemia occur due to a low level of iron in the blood. There are several types of anemia, i.e., pernicious anemia which is the inability of the body to absorb or take in vitamin B12 properly. Anemia caused by folic acid deficiency is attributed to low levels of folic acid which is as a result of inadequate dietary intake or insufficient absorption. The Hemolytic anemia is caused by the destruction of red blood cells; sickle cell anemia is a prominent type of this disease, it has been attributed to the abnormality of hemoglobin and could be inherited by offspring form their parents. The thalassemia anemia, on the other hand, is an inherited disorder in hemoglobin synthesis and it decreases bone marrow production. Laboratory tests should be carried out to discover both the number of red blood cells and their appearance.

Symptoms of Anemia

Fatigue and energy loss

Fatigue and energy loss is a primary symptom of anemia; it is as a result of blood not moving oxygen to the body parts, which results in excessive tiredness and constant fatigue. Dizziness is a symptom of always feeling sleepy. Dizziness can be described as a perceived motion which is not real. Some conditions can be used to describe dizziness, for example, a situation where one loses movement control while walking and a tendency of fall off without a cause, (National Institue Of Health, 2011).


Insomnia is also another symptom of anemia. Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is characterized by difficulty in falling or staying asleep. People with insomnia have the following characteristics. They have issues with falling asleep some have erratic and constant rest interruptions at night, they hardly get back to sleep and always feel tired in the morning. Insomnia could be chronic or less significant; an acute insomnia can last from a single night to some few weeks. Insomnia is considered as intense when a patient is unable to sleep for three nights in a week, a month or longer.

Leg Cramps

Another sign of anemia is leg cramps. This is when the muscles of the foot suddenly become weak, hard and tight which results in difficulty in the attainments of motions. Poor blood circulation causes muscle cramps in the legs, not stretching enough, potassium deficiency, muscle fatigue, dehydration, and magnesium deficiency. Other symptoms are unusually rapid heartbeats, headaches, lack of concentration and pale skin.

Evidence-Based Interventions or Teachings Concerning Anemia

Right Age for Marriage Age, Developing Nutrition and Growth

Lead agency was the government of Uttar Pradesh, Vatsalya, and UNICEF its focused area being In-school and out-of-school adolescent females with anemia using an approach of peer education to reach beyond those girls in school. The program was implemented in two Districts of Uttar Pradesh. The intervention provided reorientation for members of Uttar Pradesh which resulted in an adoption of positive nutrition and marriage practices, (Vir et al 2008).

Reducing Iron Deficiency and Changing Dietary Behaviors among Adolescent Girls 

Lead agency is an Institute of Health Management, in Pachod, Maharashtra, and ICRW and its area of focus were evolving nutritional behaviors, weekly IFA for first three months implemented in 16 slums in Pune and expanded to 72 villages of Maharashtra. The program leads to enlightenment of the comunity as regarding the effects of poor dietary practices and led to the adoption of proper feeding methods in the 72 villages of Maharashtra, (Bhanushali et al 2011).

Adolescent Girls Anemia Control Program

Lead agency was the Dept. of Preventive and Social Medicine, Medical College Vadodara, UNICEF, and Govt. of Gujarat and its primary area of focus was Weekly IFA supplementation and improved dietary practices. The program was implemented in Vadodara District, Gujarat. The program provided both medication and orientation in a bit to control the diseases among the adolescent of the adopted communities; Hence, resulting in a drastic reduction of the reported cases of anemia of residents of the Vadodara District, Gujarat, (Toteja et al 2006).

Anemia Prevention Project

Lead agency was the initiative of Government of Jharkhand that’s district, the government of India, Vikas Bharti and Micronutrient Project (USAID) primary area of focus was Package of services, focus on maternal and adolescent anemia. The implantation of the program provided local community dwellers with clues as regarding the cause of anemia and the primary treatment and control methods of the diseases, (Galloway, 2002).

Extruded Rice fortified with Micronized Ground Ferric Pyrophosphate

Lead agency was the Micronutrient Initiative and St. Johns National Academy of Health Sciences Focus on childhood anemia (6-13 yrs.), through a school-based program. The program was implemented in one school in Bangalore. The program featured an enlightenment as to the possibility of childhood anemia, causes, control and prevented was disused. The program led to a profound orientation and reduction in rates of reported childhood anemia cases, (Moretti et al 2006).

Breastfeeding Babies As Long As Possible

Earlier it was believed that breastfeeding babies needed iron supplements because of the notion that breast milk had low iron contents. It is crucial to emphasize it has been discovered in recent times that breastfed babies have a reasonable level of iron in the body compared to infants who were fed with iron-fortified drinks. Human milk remains the essential babies’ meal; therefore breastfeeding should be done to prevent iron deficiencies in babies.

Use of Iron-Fortified Formula and Iron Supplements

This method can be used after three months of breastfeeding a baby. The use of Fortified Formula drinks increases the iron level in the body, hence reducing chances of suffering from anemia. There is also the need to combine foods and meals wisely in a bid to prevent anemia. Eating foods rich in vitamin C along with other foods with good iron contents is necessary. Meals should be combined properly because failure to do this will lead to a lack of essential nutrients in the body. Foods rich in vitamin B12 should also be included in the meals, and these minerals are normally found in the animal products (Longo & Camaschella, 2015).

Check medication

In cases of anemia symptoms, specific action should be taken, medical attention should be sought, since prevention is always better than cure, there is a need to as ask the doctor for alternatives and home remedies that could be used in place of drug administration.

Proper Dietary Habits

Proper diet is also required to combat anemia. Thus this concept should be studied keenly. The poor diet involves taking meals without iron; this could be detrimental and could result in chronic cases of anemia. Therefore it is vital to abide by the Statistic report which states that men’s intake of iron should be about 8milligrams daily while women should have 18milligrams of iron per day, (Baker, Greer, & the Committee on Nutrition, 2010). 

Other Required Actions

Some of the discussed findings from peer-reviewed biomedical research studies point out the need to strengthen, monitor, evaluate and document capacity in the public and private sector to improve the data available for decision making and to fill critical evidence gaps. Secondly, both the Government and the private sector should contribute to the evidence-based research in this field by evaluating the existing “natural experiments” and successes within Government programs. Thirdly, some interventions with significant results used the “positive deviance approach” (like the Adolescent Anemia Control Program for Girls in Vadodara District and the UMANG Project in Uttar Pradesh). Which lead to the reorientation for members of the community resulting in an adoption of positive nutrition and adequate marriage practices, (Lead agency is an Institute of Health Management, in Pachod, Maharashtra, and ICRW). Which lead to the enlightenment of the community as regards the effects of poor dietary practices and led to the adoption of proper feeding methods in the 72 villages of Maharashtra. The Adolescent Girls Anemia Control Program was carried out at the Vadodara District, Gujarat and led to a drastic reduction of the reported cases of anemia of residents of the community. Based on the above results of this approach on the program should be implemented a large scale.


Present in our society today is the realities of the disease known as anemia. It is important to note that the number of anemia cases is on the increase. Thus a due consideration should be placed on the importance of anemia prevention and treatment. If prevention measures are not put in place, this condition will become a significant societal problem. It is important to note that the study has justified the fact that Positive lifestyle can significantly diminish the possibility of anemia development as well as effective intervention practices accelerates the process of recovery. Therefore, it is recommended that providing teaching points for the patients will bring about better results of the intervention. Other measures of control for this disease include an early registration of pregnancy, assessment of anemia status, diet assessment and medical advice and provision of acid. 


I have learned a lot from writing the overview of anemia. First, I have discovered that Prevention is better than cure since measures put in place to prevent the disease are necessary to avoid the disease itself. Also, people should be aware of the prevalence of this disorder; there is a need for the creation of awareness about its causes and preventive measures. I have also learned that it is important to examine one’s family because some types of anemia are hereditary. Meals should be checked and properly balanced. Food rich in vitamin B12, iron, and folic acid should be included in one’s diet. 

What stood out during the study is the statistics that show the number of people affected by this disease, the figure is, and it is on the increase. Statistics show that over 1.61 billion people are affected by anemia, (Camaschella, 2015). Also, the different researches carried out on the disease point out the above facts during the study. Nurses, patients, and other people should, therefore, consider the causes and the preventive measures. Patients should also understand the repercussion of diet and the meals they take, and nurses should possess information required to advise patients.

A course in pathophysiology is essential and vital in studying Bachelor of Science Nursing. It is crucial to anyone who wants to be a successful member of the clinical team. Pathophysiology courses are a complement to classes like anatomy and physiology. Their inclusion helps nurses to understand diseases in details and how to treat patients suffering from such diseases. Therefore, pathophysiology should be a mandatory course for all BSN students.


Baker, R. D., Greer, F. R., & The Committee On Nutrition. (2010). Diagnosis and Prevention of Iron Deficiency and Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Young Children (0−3 Years of Age). Pediatrics, 126(5), 1040–1050.

Bhanushali, M. M., Shirode, A. R., Joshi, Y. M., & Kadam, V. J. (2011). An intervention on iron deficiency anaemia and change in dietary behavior among adolescent girls. International journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, 3(1), 40-2.

Camaschella, C. (2015). Iron-Deficiency Anemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(19), 1832–1843.

Changes, H. L. (2011). Anemia. Changes, Healthy Lifestyle, 11(7), 4 pgs.

Galloway, R., Dusch, E., Elder, L., Achadi, E., Grajeda, R., Hurtado, E., ... & Moore, K. M. (2002). Women's perceptions of iron deficiency and anemia prevention and control in eight developing countries. Social science & medicine, 55(4), 529-544.

Toteja, G. S., Singh, P., Dhillon, B. S., Saxena, B. N., Ahmed, F. U., Singh, R. P., ... & Sarma,U. C. (2006). Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and adolescent girls in 16 districts of India. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 27(4), 311-315.

Longo, D. L., & Camaschella, C. (2015). Iron-Deficiency Anemia. New England Journal of Medicine (Vol. 372).

National Institue Of Health (2011). Your Guide to Anemia. Nih, 2–48.

Vir, S. C., Singh, N., Nigam, A. K., & Jain, R. (2008). Weekly iron and folic acid 
supplementation with counseling reduces anemia in adolescent girls: a large-scale effectiveness study in Uttar Pradesh, India. Food and nutrition bulletin, 29(3), 186-194.

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