Art and History of Muslim Poetry

Freshman (College 1st year) ・Architecture ・MLA

1. What is Sufism? Who is Rumi?

Maulana Jalauddin Rumi was an ancient Persian Professor of Religious Sciences, who lived during the 13th century. He is known for his works in poetry, he is regarded as one of the best poets ever. He was born in Afghanistan but lived all his life in Konan, Turkey. He moved to Iconium city in Konan after the Mongolian attack. He was a firm believer in God and he influenced people around him to share is ideas. He underwent the Sufism training for 9 years so he could lead is life as a Sufi. He loved to listen to music and he was a good lover of music. He often meditated in his time to come up with answers to matter of interests. He is renowned for his works in abstract art.

2. What do these two images tell us about artistic production in Seljuq Iran?

The images are a clear indication that the artistic production in the 11th century had highly developed. Artists used both metal and ceramics to create interesting pots and plates. The metal pot shows that the technology used in molding the was complex. Additionally, it had a painting that shows that the artists could express their cultures on metal works to preserve for future reference. On the other hand, the ceramic images show that Seljuq Iran were people who owned horses. Besides, they could design beautiful plates with drawings, which increased the good look of the artifacts.

Topic 8

1. What is the significance of the Madrasa for Turkish Seljuq society?

The Turkish Seljuk Society relied on the use of Madrasa for religious and political issues. The building acted as a landmark due to its unique design in the society. It had a long tower that increased the beauty of the place. Inside the Madrasa building, some rooms are proportional to accommodate visitors coming to the city. Additionally, the Turkish Seljuk people used the Madras to conduct important city and administrative functions. Accordingly, the rooms are petitioned into sections that clearly shows that it served many functions. Additionally, the internal furnishing is done using exquisite materials, which brings out a view that portrays the hard work of the architects as well as the builders.

2. What do these images tell us about society in Syria, Turkey, and Iraq during the 13th century?

The images are a clear indication that the society in Syria, Iraq, and Turkey during the 13th century had undergone an immense development. The artists and architects were well informed of how to create structures with sophisticated finishing. For instance, they made metallic kettles with combined materials that gave them an interesting appearance. A look at the buildings in the images shows that people in Turkey and Iraq could build houses and halls with sharp corners. The gates of the building are well formed. The roof were made of concrete, an illustration that the society in Syria, Iraq, and Turkey had advanced significantly.

Topic 10

1. What do these two images tell us about how the II Khanids used artistic patronage to legitimize themselves? Why is this necessary?

The images portray how the Uljeitu converted to Islam and decided to settle in the new capital called the Sultaniyya. In the city, there many building which takes on new architectural looks and designs. For instance, the building of the Blue Title shows that the architects would use new methods to create a beautiful scene at the top of the building. The images portraying new designs are created in complex designs that confirm how the two Khanids had made the images using powerful techniques. Additionally, the images with the portrait of Muhammad shows him sitting on a well-designed location. Clearly, the purpose of the images was to illustrate the techniques used in making the buildings.

  1. Look at these two images and write a short paragraph on similarities and differences between them

One similarity is that the leaders in the images are sitting on the throne and are ready to execute their mandates. For instance, in one case, future Buddha is addressing the devil while the other scene presents Alexander the great addressing his subjects. On the contrary, the first difference is seen in the environment of the Buddha. He is seated outside and is dealing with the devil while the other scene presents Alexander in a house where he is talking and seemingly celebrating with his subjects.

  1. What do these 3 images tell us about the II Khanids and the goals of their patronage?

The two Khanids are truly serving their customers. The Khanids are people who like comfort as shown in the way they stay in lavish areas. Their objective was to show people that they have the ability to deliver services without ceasing. In fact, they have taken up positions in the midst of many servants. However, their buildings have great ingenuity, which clearly shows that they have power and ingenious architects that came up with the design of those buildings. Importantly, they wanted to show patronage to enemies as well as the people they serve by having such unique designs of houses.

Topic 11

  1. Why are madrasas so important in the Mamluk period? What are the features that characterize them? Write an essay addressing these issues.

The madrasas were very import structures during the Mamluk period in the ancient periods. They were large buildings with dome curving on top. They were mainly essential as educational centers during the period of the Mamluk. Through the teaching programs that took place in the building, Egypt was able to produce powerful engineers, agriculturalist, and architects that worked in vast areas in Egypt to bring about development and growth. The main features of the buildings included the presence of a long tower, circular windows for lighting, and long walls close to the three stories tall. Moreover, the floors were smoothly furnished with ceramic tiles while the walls had educational symbols that would at the time help in reminding students about the taught concepts.

  1. Write an essay explaining why the theme of the Kalila Wa Dimna would be especially appropriate to Mamluk Patronage.

The theme of Kalila Wa Dimna was imperative for the Mamluk Patronage because it made it possible for the king to look down on many of his people. As shown in the images, the lion is looking at the prey for the first time. After a short while, it attacks it to devour it for food. The incidences that occurred in the scene shows that there was mistrust among people because no one never knew the time when to be preyed upon by these dangerously looking lions. In fact, there was an occasion when other dangerous wild animals would attack a beehive to feast on the honey without considering the plight of the many waiting bees. The lion also attacked a cow. However, an elephant also planned for the pain of the lion in another occasion. Therefore, the theme of patronage is exemplified in the behavior of the animals.

Topic 10

  1. Write an essay that explains the significance of the Alhambra's gardens, layout, and other important imagery both literary and visual.

The Alhambra presents very beautiful layout of the garden and the building. The walls and roofs presents the uniqueness of the building as having essential components which only architecture can explain. For instance, the two sister’s hall is tall building in the center with rounded walls. The other pillars of the building are created with a great deal of mathematical calculations to present it uniformity as well as with similarities. Outside the building are organized gardens that seem to explain that the design is unique for it allows room for growing of green plants whose contribution in color and functions are essential. Literary, the images of the building, have very nice designs.

  1. While the appearance of Nasrird and Marinid architecture is similar, their functions are quite different. Write a short statement on this.

The architectural designs of the two buildings are indeed very similar. They have the same wall formations that are presented in the ways they were constructed high. Besides, the Nasrird and Marinid are made using features that seem to explain that their functions would be same while in the real sense it would be entirely different. For instance, each of the floors has a water fountain structure. However, the paintings and interior furnishing are made differently from each other. This just explains that the functions could be different. Additionally, some features like floor are made using different floor tiles, which seems to explain the functions could be very different.

  1. Discuss the local features that contribute to the unique appearance of this mosque.

Firstly, the buildings are made using mud. Mud is a well-mixed soil that was used for molding the beautiful walls of the Mosque. Then the walls of the building are made in a conical shape. A feature that leads them to have pointed tops. Additionally, there are blocks and pieces of woods that seem to explain that people could climb to the upper part of the building. Indeed, the wooden protruding parts seem to show that there chambers in the inside which are made of wood. Finally, the surface of the structure is smooth. Meaning, the architects made them smooth to prevent them from holding water after rain.

  1. Identify these two structures and then write an essay on the role of regionalism in the development of Islamic architecture.

One of the structures on the left is Timbuktu Mosque while the other is the great Mosque of Xian. Indeed, the region was central to the development of structures. For instance, the Timbuktu mosque was made using mud because other materials were rare in that region. On the other hand, the Xian Great Mosque is made using wooden structures with roofs curving upwards. The main reason for the development of such structure in the Xian was because people in the region were originally constructing structures using the same architectural design. Therefore, the region contributed significantly to the development of structures like Mosques in various areas.

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