Blood Types Explained and Their Importance

Freshman (College 1st year) ・Healthcare&Medicine ・MLA ・3 Sources

A Blood group is another name for blood type. The presence or absence of antigens called anti-A and anti-B on the membranes of red blood cells (RBCs) determines the ABO blood types. There are four types of blood. The blood groups A, B, AB, and O are the most common. When both antigens are present, the blood type is referred to as AB. If only one antigen is present, the blood type is classified as either A or B. The blood type is assigned as O if neither antigen is present. Also, one's blood type is influenced by the Rh factor. If the Rh antigen was found on the surface of red blood cells, the person was labeled as Rh. A person without the Rh antigen is designated as Rh negative (Rh-). This a person’s complete blood type must specify both ABO type and the Rh factor (Mohandas, 2005). For example, a person with the A antigen and the Rh antigen present, will be designated as A positive (A+) blood type

Importance of knowing blood types and Rh factors comes while transfusing the blood. Blood compatibility has to be seen between donor and recipient. If Rh+ve blood is injected in Rh-ve person, it causes lysis of cells because the anti Rh antibodies present in Rh-ve person will cause the lysis of RBCs. If you transfer A blood group to B blood group person, the anti A antibodies present in his serum will cause hemolysis of the Red blood cells.

Blood type AB has both anti-A and anti-B antibodies enabling an AB person to receive blood of any type (referred to as a universal recipient). On the other hand, people having blood type O lack anti-A and anti-B allowing people with this blood type to be universal donors

Immunity and hypersensitivity

When you think of hypersensitivity and immunity, you may quickly conclude that they mean the same thing. This is because both are about the immune system performing same job of fighting infections. Hypersensitivity, also known as hypersensitivity intolerance or reaction, is an allergic reaction induced due to repeated exposure to an allergen. On the other hand, immunity is the ability of multicellular organisms to fight against pathogens and defense against toxins from entering into the body (Girardi, 2006).

Hypersensitivity reaction are subclassified into for groups; type I, II, III, and IV as proposed. Type I is the immediate hypersensitivity which is quick response occurring after reexposure. Type II is the cytotoxic hypersensitivity which is produced when an antigen comes into contact with the skin. Type III occurs when antigens are produced in excess. Type IV are cell-mediated responses which takes up to three days to develop. Also, there’s a Type V is where antibodies are bound to the cell surface receptors instead of cell surfaces and is used to distinguish from type II (Rajan, 2003). On the contrary, immunity classified into cell innate immunity, acquired immunity, natural immunity, and artificial immunity.

Immunity is a response to the reaction of the body against any foreign antigen to protect against disease causing antigens while hypersensitivity is an over-reaction of an immune system to fight reoccurrence of an antigen.

A similarity between hypersensitivity and immunity is that type I, III, and IV hypersensitivity occurs in response to an antigen and antibodies in these reactions just like in immunity

Medical words pertaining to the blood, lymphatic and cardiovascular system

Antigens are the foreign molecules (pathogen, bacteria, virus etc) which our body recognizes and mount defense action against it.

Antibodies are the protein molecules secreted by plasma cells, which are in turn produced by B cells when it comes in contact with any antigen.

Erythroblastoris fetalisis is a condition where an Rh+ fetus has come into contact with anti-Rh antibodies through breaks in the placental membrane.

Erythropoietin is a hormone that is released from the kidneys, and to a lesser extent the lover, which stimulates red blood cell production.

Pletelets (thrombocytes) is the formation of blood clots.

Globulins help to transmit lipids and fat-soluble vitamins and are the antibodies of immunity.

Thrombin acts as an enzyme and causes a reaction in the fibrinogen allowing it to become fibrin.

A thrombusis is a blood clot that forms in a vessel abnormally.

A embolusis is a blood clot that becomes dislodged and is carried away by blood flow.

Fibrin threads absorbs a plasma protein called plasminogen.

Fibrinogen is precursor to fibrin that has a major role in blood clotting.

Plasminogen activators are released from the lysosomes of the damaged tissue cells that converts plasminogen to plasmin.

A granulocyteis is a white blood cell that has granular cytoplasm.

Agranulocytes are white blood cells that lack cctoplasmic granules.

Neutrophililsare are granulocytes that function to kill certain parasites and help control allergic reactions.

Eosinphilsare gnanulocytes that function to kill certain parasites and help control allergic reactions.

Basophilsare granulocytes that function to release heparin that inhibits blood clotting. They also release histamine to cause inflammation.

Biliverdin is the greenish pigment that results when the heme portion of the haemoglobin breaks apart.

Bilirubinis is what biliverdin eventually converts to over time.

Oxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin combined with oxygen.

Deoxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin that has released oxygen

Hematocrit is the percentage of the cells in a blood sample.

Carditis Is an inflammation of the heart

Brdycardia is when the heart beat is slower than normal

Lympheddema causes swelling in the arms and legs due to blockage if the lymphatic system

Works Cited

Rajan, T.V. "The Gell–Coombs classification of hypersensitivity reactions: A re-interpretation". Trends in Immunology (2003).24(7): 376–9

Girardi M. "Immunosurveillance and immunoregulation by gammadelta T cells".The Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2006).126(1): 25–31.

Mohandas, N. "Blood group antigens in health and disease.".Current Opinion in Hematology (2005).12(2): 135–40

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