Breast Cancer Observation

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Sophomore (College 2nd year) ・Biology ・MLA ・7 Sources

This paper pursuits at researching the disease of breast cancer. Particular interest is paid to the issue of proteins or genes that contributes to this condition. Moreover, updated data of the treatment/ potential diagnostics with biotechnologists is provided to assist in explaining the relevant points.
By definition, breast cancer refers to a kind of cancer that develops from the tissue of the breast. Some of the breast cancer signs and symptoms include changes in the form of the breast and lump in the breast. Other signs associated with the breast most cancers are the fluid that comes from the nipple, the skin dimpling, and the skin's red, scaly patch. Those patients with disease’s distant spread are likely to have swollen lymph nodes, pain in the bone, yellow skin, and the breath shortness.

Development of Breast Cancer

Some of the contributors for the development of the breast cancer include being obese, female, and drinking excessive alcohol. Lack of physical exercise, the therapy of hormone replacement during the menopause, as well as the radiation of ionization are also some of the contributors to the breast cancer (O'Shaughnessy 69). Most commonly, the breast cancer develops in cells from the milk duct lining and the lobules that helps in supplying the ducts with the milk. Ductal carcinomas are the cancers that develop from the ducts. Also, there are the ones that develop from the lobules (Borg 15). This type of cancer is called the lobular carcinomas. Moreover, there are other several breast cancer’s sub types. O'Shaughnessy (70) further notes that the confirmation of the diagnosis of breast cancer is through taking of the concerning lump’s biopsy. More tests are carried out for the determination of the possibility of the spread of cancer beyond the breast as well the method of treatment that is necessary (Borg 64).
A controversy surrounds the harms versus the balance of benefits of the screening of breast cancer. For example, a Cochrane review of 2013 clarified that it is not clear whether mammographic screening does more harm or good. The medications raloxifene or tamoxifen may be useful in an effort for the prevention of breast cancer (Dowsett 32). Another preventive measure involves the surgical removal of the two breast in some high risks patients (Cuzick 48). In the same way, a number of treatments may be used for the people who have been diagnosed with cancer. Some of these treatment methods include the use of radiation therapy, surgery, and the hormonal therapy. Besides, chemotherapy, as well as the targeted therapy are also helpful (Dowsett 37).
The reconstruction of the breast can also occur at the surgery time or a later date (Marazita 49). Normally, the main aim of the reconstruction is to improve life quality and comfort the people with breast cancer. The type of cancer produces different outcomes (Moriya 249). Other factors contributing to the cancer outcome are the age of the person and the extent of the disease. In the developed world, the rate of survival is high. In the United States and England, the number of patients who survive for at least five years is 90% and 80% respectively (Krieger 7). Conversely, most cancer patients in developing countries do not survive. In women, the breast cancer is the leading type of cancer worldwide. In particular, this type of cancer accounts for about 25% of all the cases that are reported (Borg 67).
In 2012 alone, the number of women who were diagnosed with the breast cancer was about more than 1.6 million. This figure is a representation of new cases. Breast cancer is more common in developing countries than the developed ones. Again, it is several times less common in men than in women (Dowsett 37).

Breast Cancer Signs and Symptoms

In most cases, breast cancer shows lump, inverted nipple, as well as the skin dimpling (Borg 71). Typically, the first breast cancer’s noticeable symptom is a lump. More than 80% of the cases of breast cancer are discovered when a lump is felt by a woman. The use of mammogram helps in the detection of the earliest breast cancers (Krieger 11).
Additionally, the breast cancer can also be indicated by the lymph nodes that are located in the armpits (Cuzick 26). Other than lump, the indications of the breast cancer may include the thickening parts. In most cases, one of the breasts become lower or larger. A nipple may also be inverted or change shape or position. Other symptoms of the breast cancer in women are the rush around or on a nipple, skin dimpling or puckering, as well as the discharge from the nipples (Dowsett 46). A woman who has the breast cancer may also feel a constant pain in her armpit or breast. However, pain does not act as a reliable tool to determine either the absence or presences of breast cancer (Dowsett 39).
Other types of breast cancer are not easy to detect (Marazita 57). In particular, the inflammatory breast cancer in most cases poses a substantial challenge of diagnosis. Some of its symptoms resemble the inflammatory of the breast. These symptoms include the swelling, inversion of the nipple, itching, and the pain throughout the breast (Cuzick 28). Other symptoms here are the redness and warmth of the breast. Unlike other types of breast cancers, the inflammatory one fails to present a lump. For this reason, it mainly causes some delay in the diagnosis.
Paget's breast disease is another breast cancer's reported symptom complex. Commonly, this syndrome is the presentation of the changes in the skin that resembles eczema. In particular, the symptoms include itching, pain, and tingling of the breast (Borg 72). Other symptoms are the burning and the increase in sensitivity of the breast. In this case, there is also a possibility of discharge from the nipple. Roughly, half of the women diagnosed with the disease of the Paget’s of the breast also present a lump in the breast (Dowsett 51).

Factors of Risk

Normally, the factors of risk are divided into two main categories. Specifically, these categories include fixed and modifiable factors for risk. Things that can be changed by people constitute the modifiable risk factors (Borg 74). Example of things that people can change include the alcoholic beverage consumption. Fixed risk factors, on the other hand are not possible to be changed by people. Example of fixed risk factors is the biological sex and age. For breast cancer, the primary factors of risk are the older age and being a female. Moreover, other potential risk factors include failure to breastfeed or bear the child, genetics, and certain hormones higher levels. Also, obesity, as well as certain dietary patterns, are other examples of potential risk factors (O'Shaughnessy 71). Exposure to light pollution has been considered in the recent studies to be another example of risk factor that develops breast cancer.

Genetics

Abnormal genes that parent passes to a child are considered as contributing to about five to ten percent of breast cancers. By definition, genes refer to the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) short segments located in the chromosomes. The instructions that help in building the proteins are contained in DNA. Most importantly, the proteins play a significant role in controlling the function and structure of all the cells making the body (Marazita 82). The two abnormal genes that relate to the most of inherited breast cancer cases include BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes are present in all the people. Their primary function is to repair the damaged cells. In effect, they provide normal growing of the breast.
Substantially, the chances of breast cancer occur when a person had his/ her father diagnosed with the disease before the age of fifty years. Another factor that is likely to contribute to such condition includes having both the ovarian and the breast cancer on the family’s same side or in a single individual (Cuzick 56). More possible causes include the cases when women in such a family have had cancer in both breasts or having relatives with triple-negative breast cancer among others. Other genes that may contribute to breast cancer include ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, BRIP1, among others.
These genetic susceptibilities can result in the cause of breast cancer. As already noted, it is believed that genetics is responsible for the cause of about 5-10% of the total causes of breast cancer (Marazita 83). In fact, women who have an increased risk of the disease are the ones whose mothers were diagnosed/ detected before the age of 50 years (Cuzick 52). The chances of those women (whose mothers were diagnosed/ detected before the age of 50 years) to develop breast cancer are increased by about 1.7. In the same way, the one whose mothers were diagnosed with the disease at 50 or more years of age had the risk of 1.4. Also, genetics contributes to the syndrome of hereditary breast-ovarian cancer in less than 5% of all the cases (Marazita 89).

Diagnostic and Treatment with Biotechnology

The breast cancer can also be diagnosed and treated with biotechnology. Breast cancer occurs because of the genetically susceptible host and the external (environmental) factors (Dowsett 66). As noted before, some of the factors of risk for the development of the breast cancer include being obese, female, and drinking excessive alcohol. Failure to have physical exercise, the therapy of hormone replacement during the menopause, as well as the radiation of ionization are also some of the contributors to the breast cancer (Cuzick 58). Ductal carcinomas are the cancers that develop from the ducts. In this case, the normal cells are divided into several times. Eventually, they get attached to other cells then stay in tissue places. Cancerous cells result from the loss of their ability for stopping division (Borg 83).
Naturally, the normal cells will be committing the programmed death of cells when they are not needed any longer. Until then, several pathways and clusters of protein protect such cells. One of the pathways of protection is the RAS/ERK/MEK (Cuzick 59). The other pathway is the P13K/ AKT. Sometimes, there is a mutation of these genes that are along the pathways of protection. In effect, the cells are rendered not capable of committing suicide when it is no longer required (Marazita 97). In addition to other mutations, this procedure acts as one of the steps that result in the development of cancer (Borg 93). In normal conditions, the P13K/ AKT pathways are turned off by the PTEN protein where the cell becomes ready for the program of death (Dowsett 74).
The signal transduction pathways overview is involved in the cell death that is programmed. The formation of cancer can occur as a result of the mutations that lead to this loss of ability. Also, there is the type of breast cancer that develops from the lobules. This type of cancer is called the lobular carcinomas (Cuzick 61). Moreover, there are other several breast cancer's subtypes. The confirmation of the diagnosis of breast cancer is through taking of the concerning lump's biopsy. More tests are carried out for the determination of the possibility of the spread of cancer as well the method of treatment that is necessary. This procedure is done mainly after making the diagnosis (Borg 164).
Experimentally, the mutations that cause the cancer of breast are in most cases linked to the exposure of estrogen (Dowsett 84). However, a controversy surrounds the harms versus the balance of benefits of the screening of breast cancer. For example, a Cochrane review of 2013 notes that no one can predict the benefits of mammographic screening. The medications raloxifene or tamoxifen may be useful in an effort for the prevention of breast cancer. Another preventive measure involves the surgical removal of the two breast in some high risks women. In the same way, some treatments may be used for the people who have been diagnosed with cancer (Marazita 149). Some of these treatment methods include the use of radiation therapy, surgery, and the hormonal therapy (Borg 165). Besides, chemotherapy, as well as the targeted therapy, can also be much helpful. Notably, some of the factors that facilitate the growth of the malignant cell include the abnormal signaling factor in the interaction between epithelial cells and the stromal cells (Cuzick 69).

Classification of Breast Cancer

Several systems of grading are used for grading of the breast cancer. The prognosis is influenced by each of these classifications. They can also have the effect of the response to treatment. Optimally, the breast cancer description includes all the factors (Marazita 99).
Usually, the cancer of the breast is classified primarily by its appearance of histology (Marazita 151). The epithelium that lines the lobules or the duct is used in driving most of the breast cancers. These cancers are generally classified as either lobular or ductal carcinoma. The low-growth precancerous or cancerous cells is what contributes to the carcinoma in situ within a particular compartment of the particular tissue. The invasion carcinoma, in contrast, fail to confine itself to the initial compartment of the tissue (Borg 176).
In the same way, the grading helps in comparing the breast cancer cells appearance to the normal breast tissue appearance. In an organ such as the breast, the normal cells become differentiated (Marazita 133). In the process of differentiation, the cells take specific forms and shapes for reflecting their function as the organ part. However, such differentiation is lost by the cancerous cells (Cuzick 78).

The Prevention of Breast Cancer

The risk of breast cancer can be minimized or reduced by women by drinking less alcohol, maintaining the heathy weight, as well as being physically active (Marazita 162). Children should also be breastfed. Such modifications are possible to prevent about 38% of the cancers of the breast in the United States. Moreover, such practices can reduce the possibility of breast cancer by 28%in Brazil, 42% in the United Kingdom, and 20% in China (Borg 188). The moderate exercise such as brisk walking should be encouraged at all ages that include the postmenopausal women (Cuzick 148).

Conclusion

Research has proved that breast cancer mainly affects women. Several risk factors contribute to the development of the breast cancer. In most cases, proteins and genes are involved in this disease. Normally, failure to have physical exercise, the therapy of hormone replacement during the menopause, as well as the radiation of ionization are some of the contributors to the breast cancer. There are some factors of risk that are divided into a total of two categories. Example of fixed risk factors is the biological sex and age. For breast cancer, the primary factors of risk are the older age and being a female. Moreover, there are other potential risk factors that include failure to breastfeed or bear the child, genetics, and certain hormones higher levels. Exposure to light pollution has been considered in the recent studies to be another example of risk factor that develops breast cancer. Overall, the best way to avoid the potential risk of getting cancer is to practice some healthy style of living as already discussed. Several systems of grading are used for grading of the breast cancer. The prognosis is influenced by each of these classifications. They can also affect the response to treatment. Overall, there is potential treatment and diagnostic with biotechnologies that helps in dealing with the disease as already noted in the paper. 

Works Cited

Borg, Å. "Genomic Profiling of Breast Cancer." Breast Cancer Research, vol. 7, no. 2, 2005, doi:10.1186/bcr1072.
Cuzick, Jack. "Future Possibilities in the Prevention of Breast Cancer: Breast Cancer Prevention Trials." Breast Cancer Research, vol. 2, no. 4, 2000, doi:10.1186/bcr66.
Dowsett, M. "Translational Breast Cancer Research in Luminal Breast Cancer." Breast Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 2, 2011, doi:10.1186/bcr3013.
Krieger, Nancy. "Breast Bruises and Breast Cancer." Breast Cancer Research, vol. 17, no. 1, 2015, doi:10.1186/s13058-015-0631-y.
Marazita, Mary L. "Quantitative Genetics and the First Golden Age of Genetics." Trends in Genetics, vol. 15, no. 3, 1999, p. 120. doi:10.1016/s0168-9525(98)01657-6.
Moriya, Takuya. "Diagnosis of Non-Palpable Breast Cancer (Image-Detected Breast Cancer)." Breast Cancer, vol. 12, no. 4, 2005, pp. 249-254. doi:10.2325/jbcs.12.249.
O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A. "Lethal Breast Cancer." Clinical Breast Cancer, vol. 10, 2010, pp. 66-71. doi:10.3816/cbc.2010. s.001.

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