Child Development Stages

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The psychological cognitive development relates specifically to infant development in terms of information processing, language acquisition, conceptual resources and brain development. This is an important part of the growth of children. Through this process, the child is able to learn how to overcome issues in the future. Furthermore, it helps the child to improve memory, a crucial tool that allows the child to think and to objectively recall past events. It also encourages the child to focus on whatever task he or she would do. Notably, the ability to concentrate plays a role in the academic and life success. Furthermore, this development imparts the child with imagination skills that are significant in his/her life. Notably, through imagination, the child is able to become creative and think critically about life. Above all, it is through the cognitive development that the child would be able to learn on how to work out things. As each and every child grows from infant stage to the adult stage, he/she goes through cognitive development. A point to note is that this development significantly impacts the child family with fear and anxiety of not being able to predict the child’s personality when he/she grows to adults. Notably, as the child goes through different stages of development, he/she faces many crises. The ability in solving these crises play an important role in the success of the next stage of development and his/her future development. Importantly, the parents must provide the child with all the needed support to assist in solving these crises. The paper seeks to provide the in-depth discussion of the psychosocial and cognitive development as the child undergoes various stages of development. It also discusses crisis found in each stage of development, its impact and how it should be addressed.

Erik Erikson Stages of Child Development

Erik Erikson who is a renowned psychologist came up with eight stages that represent a life stage that a child undergoes from the infancy until he/she reaches the old age. The mentioned stages represent various cognitive developments that impact the child growth. Apart from this development, the stages also express crises that emerge as a child move from one stage to another (Erikson & Coles, 2001). This crisis impact the family members and they should move with haste in addressing them because if they are not ironed out, the child development would be affected. Notably, as the move from one stage of development to another, he /she experience the psychosocial changes.

Trust vs. Mistrust

Trust vs. Mistrust is an infancy stage of development that occurs between the age of zero and one-half. During this stage of development, the infant is completely uncertain about his/her new world. In essence, he/she suffers insecurity of not knowing what is taking place in the world that he/she lives. In an effort to solve the feeling of uncertainty, he/she would seek the stability and care from their primary caregiver (Erikson & Coles, 2001).

During this stage, if the infant is provided with the needed stability and good care, he/she would develop hope and trust that would assist him/her in the next stage of the development. However, if he/she is not provided with stability and care, then the infant would develop a sense of mistrust, anxiety, and insecurity about his/her new world. The said mistrust has a short-term and long-term negative effect on the child (Martin & Fabes, 2008). He /she would not have trust within the family members, and when he/she grows to an adult, he/she may completely lose a sense of trust to everyone and making him have a poor relationship with others. This mistrust negatively impacts not only the immediate family but also the extended family because a child would grow without putting trust in his/her family (Erikson & Coles, 2001). In resolving this crisis, the family members must ensure that the infant is provided with a consistence good care by showing him love and stability.

During this stage of the development, the newborn would undergo the cognitive development that allows him/her to have a mental growth. The mental growth plays a critical role in the development of the child's brain (Smith & Elliott, 2011). A point to note is that when a child is provided with sufficient care and stability from the primary caregiver, then this would play a significant role in the infant cognitive development.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt is a child stage of development that takes place between the age of one and a half and three years. Notably, during this stage of development, a child experiences physical development and becomes more mobile. Additionally, at this stage, the child becomes independent and would walk away from the caregiver or the mother. Also, they make choices and decision on what clothes they would prefer to wear (Erikson & Coles, 2001). On a similar note, during this stage, the child would start to discover the skills and abilities that he/she possesses, for instance, playing with toes, wearing shoes and clothes. By doing the mentioned tasks by himself/herself the child is developing a sense of independence and autonomy which is very important for his/her development (Newman & Newman, 2014).

During this stage of development, the child should be encouraged and supported to allow him/her to develop confidence in himself/herself that would enable him to be independent. Notably, provision of the child with support and encouragement would lead to the virtue of will which is vital in his/her next stage of development. Failure to support the child during this stage would lead to loss of confidence and a low self-esteem (Martin & Fabes, 2008). This crisis would make a child to have a fear of doing things by himself, and when he grows to an adult, there is a likelihood of failure in life. The mentioned crises would affect the child family because he/she would be without confidence and high self-esteem that would not affect his/her academic performance but everything that he/she would attempt to perform (Martin & Fabes, 2008). In resolving this crisis, they should ensure that the child is encouraged and supported at this stage of the development.

During this stage, the child undergoes the psychosocial growth by having the ability to function without the parental support. Apart from this, he/she undergoes the cognitive development. The child starts to work out thing by himself, for example, wearing of clothes and shoes, and ability to play games. This is a clear indication that cognitive development has taken place. In assisting the child to have a full cognitive development in this stage, the parents should constantly encourage and support their child (Robinson, 2012).

Initiative vs. Guilt

Initiative vs. Guilt is a child stage of development that takes place between the ages of three and five. During this stage, a child experiences rapid physical growth making him/her to be more active and aggressive. Moreover, the stage provides the child with an opportunity for interaction with other children at school. The interaction with other children would play a major role as it enables the child to acquire and develop interpersonal skills (Newman & Newman, 2014). The stage permits the child to initiate activities with others such as playing games. Notably, if a child is allowed to interact with other children, they would develop a sense of initiative and have the make decisions and lead others. The success in the initiative stage would make the child develop a virtue of purpose.

It is important to note that if a child is not provided with an opportunity to interact and initiate activities, he/she will develop as sense of guilty. This crisis, guilt, would have a short term and long term impact on the child. He will lack the self-initiative skills and would always remain a follower throughout his/her life. This crisis would have a negative impact on the family because their child would not aim at being a leader but easily accept to be led by others. In resolving this crisis, the parent should not overprotect the child or punish when they try to initiate activities (Martin & Fabes, 2008).

During this stage of development, a child undergoes cognitive development. The child would start to work things by initiating games and leading others. The initiation of activities is an explicit indication that his/her brain has developed well (Kroger, 2007). The child’s parent should provide the child with a conducive environment that would give an opportunity to make decisions, initiate activities and lead others.

Industry vs. Inferiority

Industry vs. Inferiority is a child stage of development that takes place between the ages five and twelve years. During this stage of development, the child would start to learn on how to read and write, and mostly do a thing without the assistance from others. At this stage, the teacher plays a pivotal role in imparting the child with various skills that would assist him/her in the near future (Erikson & Coles, 2001). Notably, the child would recognize and involve himself/herself in the peer groups. He/she would have a sense of demonstrating competency that his/her society values. Also, he/she would have pride in their achievements. Notably, the success of the Industry stage would enable the child to develop a virtue of competence that would assist him/her in the next stage.

During this stage, the parents and teachers are expected to motivate and encourage the child so that he/she develop a sense of hardworking and having competence in whatever activity that he/she is doing. A point to note is that if the child realized that he/she is unable to develop certain skills needed by the society, he/she might develop a sense of inferiority (Hoare, 2002). This crisis, inferiority, is has a negative impact on the child because would fear to engage in many activities because not being certain if he/she would perform it to the expectation of the society (Martin & Fabes, 2008). The family of the child would be negatively affected by this crisis in the sense that their child would do things that are out of their expectation. In resolving this, they should ensure that the child is encouraged and motivated to ensure that he/she develop a sense of competency.

This stage of child development is depicted by cognitive development. As mentioned earlier, in this stage, the child start to concentrate on his/her studies through reading and writing. This is a clear indication of the cognitive development (Smith & Elliott, 2011). Also, the stage provides the child with the ability to have a good memory and imagination that is expected to the child in pursuing his/her education.

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Identity vs. Role Confusion is a child stage of development that takes place between the ages of twelve and eighteen years. During this stage, the teen search for personal identity and sense of self. In the attainment of the self-identification, he/she would engage in the intensive exploration of goals, personal values, and beliefs. This stage of development is of significant importance to the child because it marks the transition from the childhood to the adulthood. The child began to become extremely independent and start to view his/her future in terms of the pursuing a career, engaging in relationships, having a family and having a home (Erikson, 1994). Furthermore, the child would learn the roles that he/she would occupy as an adult. The important aspect of this stage is that it provides the child with a task of re-examining his/her identity. In essence, the child desire to know what he/she really is. During this stage of the development, the child would explore many things to assist him/her to identify himself/herself. Notably, failure of the child to know his/her sense of identity in the society would lead to the role of confusion that prevents him/her from knowing the child’s position in the society (Erikson, 1994). The crisis, confusion, has a short and long-term impact on the child. It would deny a child from knowing his/her identify in the society and making him/her lose touch in the society when he/she grows to an adult. This crisis would impact the family of the child because their child would lack a sense of self or inability to know what he/she really is. This may cause fear and stress in the life of a child because he/she does not know his/her identity. In resolving this, the parents should assist their child in knowing their identity (Kroger, 2007).

During this stage of the development, the child undergoes the cognitive development. His/her mental ultimately develops at this stage and enabling him to be independent of the parents. Also, the cognitive development during this stage provides the child with the ability to explore and find out his/her identity and sense of self (Hoare, 2002). Ostensibly, by the child start thinking about his/her future life is a clear indication that he/she has undergone a complete cognitive development.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is clear that as the child moves from one stage of the development to another, he/she undergoes both the psychosocial and cognitive development that is characterized by the physical and mental development. In an effort of allowing the child to undergo a successive cognitive development, the parents, caregivers, and the teachers should ensure that the child is provided with the needed support and encouragement as this reduced the emergence of crisis that might affect him/her in the next stage of the development. Most importantly, the crisis has a negative impact on the child development because if it is not addressed then his/her development in the next stage would be affected. The family members of the child would be equally affected by this crisis because their child would not be the person that they wish he/she could be.

References

Erikson, E. H., & Coles, R. (2001). The erik erikson reader. WW Norton & Company.

Erikson, E. H. (1994). Identity and the life cycle. WW Norton & Company.

Hoare, C. H. (2002). Erikson on development in adulthood: New insights from the unpublished papers. Oxford University Press on Demand.

Kroger, J. (2007). Identity development: Adolescence through adulthood. Sage.

Martin, C. L., & Fabes, R. (2008). Discovering child development. Cengage Learning.

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2014). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning.

Robinson, O. (2012). Development through adulthood: An integrative sourcebook. Palgrave Macmillan.

Smith, L. L., & Elliott, C. H. (2011). Child psychology and development for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

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