City Ills Identification and Solving

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 Ooi and Phua believe that economic development alone cannot prevent the alleviation of slum formation and subsequent growth. It is because the slums are inevitable due to the rapid evolution of the countries especially the third world countries. Mostly the urbanizing areas such as Asia. Due to the rapid expansion and economic development of the cities, the authorities lack that capacity to cope up with good infrastructure and housing at large. In this case, the government neglects the focus of housing proliferation of slum formation that may arise due to economic growth. Lastly, the inadequacy of financial and expert capacity to undertake the work needed to address the urban problem leads to poor neighborhood or slums. (Ooi & Phua, 1-2)

 Ooi and Phua used the data in various cities such as China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Philippines and Vietnam and the population living in a slum the according to UN HABITAT. Ooi and Phua concluded the analysis of the projections of the Urban to rural migration population about the urbanization and the national GDP. It shows that the Asian countries increase in rural to urban migration have reflected inadequate housing and poor infrastructure and health services. About countries such as South Korean and Japan per capita, income GDP is double and triple of those of Asian countries which are less urbanized. Therefore, the effect of migration on the cities and there is less GDP will bring up slum formation. (Ooi & Phua, 3)

 Ooi and Phua research is convincing to the authors of the urban people and places. It is due to the nature of the research that was undertaken by the two to show the cause of slum formation. The research on slum formation in the cities has been brought up by the constant rural to urban population growth. Due to the increased population growth in the cities with a higher GDP than their less national income becomes a trajectory to poor housing and economic development.

 The data collected shows that the Asian cities bring about 60% of total slum dwellers in 2001 and is estimated to rise to the next three decades. The two also goes further to show the how the less urbanized countries such as South Korea and Japan with a double and triple GDP have proper housing, social and more economic opportunities. It depicts that most of the city government back to provide a decent housing and environmental and health infrastructure. On a case study of the urbanization in Singapore shows the success of the country providing homes to utmost 85% of the population this is due to the strategic planning for economic development. (Ooi & Phua, 2-3)

 Yes, Slums are an example of problem liberals and conservatives can agree on. It is an issue that affects the both, and the formation of slums is a national negligence due to improper strategic planning and economic development to provide affordable housing due to the increased urbanization and rapid population growth to the cities. The rural- urban drive has ever separated the liberal and the conservatives. Therefore, preferred development patterns and called for restrictions. Thus, the conservatives and liberals agree on the need for more housing.

Work and Stratification

 There is a various mechanism of stratification in the urban areas. An example in San Fransisco where the employment stratification is majorly on the education part as the primary factor. For various jobs, there is a required level of education ranging from the top management to the line managers. In San Francisco, this mechanism of stratification on employment based on education in which the anti-gay discrimination interacted. Most of the gay and lesbian were stratified to work freely in San Fransisco. It is due to the high levels of education they had, and the state had freedom. San Francisco is stratified of individuals of high-level of knowledge ranging from professors to masters level degrees. This mechanism shows that San Francisco as an educational stratified urban.

 Race stratification is a major issue facing the San Fransisco despite the region being of liberal and inclusive reputation. The race and wage gap are widest. In the example that the white males workers in San Fransisco are hired faster and get promotions quickly and paid a lot of salary per hour as compared to the Latinos, blacks, and the Asians. Most of the work especially in the restaurants the colored are employed in the kitchen than the whites, where the slogan of the ROC comes by the further you get into a restaurant the skin color gets darker. Ths mechanism has affected the urbanization in San Fransisco so much regarding work and stays being there is a lot of inequality. ( Philips, 24)

 Class as a mechanism of stratification seems to work very well in San Francisco. It refers to the lower, middles and upper-class individuals. It is due to the income inequality in the area. There is a wide gap in the level of wages in the county where the rich continue plowing lots of money income, and the poorer tend to become more deficient. The individuals have the wealth inequality. Therefore the urbanization is favored to the high-income people. It brings the stratification and precluding the low-income residents and brings a problem in the housing due to the skyrocketing prices in the sector. Naturally, the increasingly wealthy class of citizens, have outpaced the lower levels in the city to the footholds.

 Lastly the immigration and the citizenship status that brought up the mechanism of stratification in the town in which the nonnatives would get jobs that did not pay well as compared to the immigrants from Mexico and other countries and blacks as well. The urbanization of San Fransisco posed a significant threat to the non-Americans and the colored workers. Citizen ship became a system of stratification in all manner be it I political, economic or legal means. The person's position and status defined the income, wealth, and occupation. In an example, there was an occupational cost of being an illegal immigrant to mostly the Mexican in San Fransisco.( Torres & Waldinger, 2015)

                                             Works cited

Giok Ling Ooi and Kai Hong Phua. Urbanization and Slum Formation. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 84(1),.2007, pp 1-8

Justin Philips. Battling racial inequality, segregation in bay restaurants, 2017

Jacqueline M Torres, Roger Waldinger. Civic stratification and the exclusion of undocumented immigrants. Journals.sageup 2015

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