Contruction of walls for Houses

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Freshman (College 1st year) ・Architecture ・APA ・8 Sources

The main intent of this paper is to elaborate on the different kinds of wall and the process of contruction of each one. A wall is an architectural structure. It is mostly vertical (Chudley & Greeno, 2013), and is often defined by its dimensions. A wall serves different purposes in a building. It is mostly use to differentiate different sections in a building and outside a building as well. Walls are difficult to construct, and the nature and dimensions of the wall most correspond with the purpose it is going to serve.

Different people, organizations or Communities normally build walls for different purposes. Some of the main Functions or purposes for building walls are division of areas(Ching, 2014). In this case, walls are normally built to divide two or more places that are under the Ownership of different personnel (Ching, 2014). Walls are also building to provide protection from animals or harsh environmental conditions, based on this instance; it is evident that the main point of emphasis is that they are used for protection. The other purpose of building Walls is that they act as barriers of Sounds, walls are poor conductors of Sounds (Emmitt & Gorse, 2013): This ascertains the fact that they can be used to limit noise especially in areas that are noisy. A good example of such areas include regions where many industries have been packed or in towns. In the town Scenario, walls are used to limit or protect the surrounding from noise that comes from the hooting of vehicles and movement of people as the wander across the streets.

Privacy is also another important aspect that Walls provide(Jester, 2014). A good example that can be used to prove on this fact is that Walls are made up of materials that are opaque in nature(Khatib, 2016). This means that one cannot be able to view on the other side, consequently this provides privacy in the sense that one can be able to do his or her activities without being monitored by anyone. Lastly Walls are very important in the sense that they are used for separating interior spaces. In this case, walls are used for separating different parts of the House or structure. Walls in this case are used structures such as Houses or home to divide different parts such as the Bedrooms, washroom, Kitchen, Living room and the dining room(Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). They also help to improve the appearance of a building; it is evident that you cannot compare a building that is surrounded by a wall as compared to a building that is wall – less. Different materials are required during the construction of Floors. The type of materials to be used depends on the user – specification(Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). Some User’s may require different types of floors that are hard to build and require extra materials as compared to the ordinary type of floors.

Despite the fact that different Walls have different materials for their Construction, there are general materials or requirements that each Wall requires during the phase of Construction. Some of the materials that are needed during the process of Construction include brick, timber and concrete that is reinforced naturally(Emmitt & Gorse, 2013). The last material that is needed for the process of Construction is blocks of Concrete. Other materials that ought to be used during the process of construction are determined by a number of factors which include the type of soil, the climate of the area whether it is hot or cold etc. A good example that can be used to ascertain this fact is that Cengal is normally used in areas that have cold and hot climatic conditions while Meranti can be used in all types of Construction(Emmitt & Gorse, 2013). When we look at the functional requirements of a floor, Walls have at least seven major functional requirements and they include safety from fire. A good Wall should be able to resist fire; it should be built with materials that are poor conductors of heat as well as fire.

Good walls ought to be stable and strong (Henriquez, 2014). This means that they should be able to with stand harsh weather environments that may cause them to fall or break down. The materials used ought to make wall strong and withstand for a long duration of time, probably even decades. Another functional requirement is that they should be able to resist moisture that comes from the ground as well as the weather (Kodur & Harmathy, 2016). Moisture contributes heavily to the destruction of walls in the sense that it makes weak and vulnerable. Other minor but important functional elements of floors is that they ought to be resistant to the impact of sound that is normally airborne as well as heat passage. As mentioned earlier, Walls are built of materials that are poor conductors of sound and heat. These materials do not allow proper travelling of Sound and Heat(Khatib, 2016). The last requirement is that the floor ought to be built In that it is durable and has of freedom especially from maintenance and it should also involve aesthetics.

In reference to the Classification of floors and the Building association, there are two major types of Walls. The first type is the Load bearing wall while the second is the non-bearing Wall (Jester, 2014). The Load bearing type of Wall is a type of Wall that can be seen to carry loads that come from above, this means that they can be able to support their own weight as well as loads that exert pressure from the roof after which they are directly transferred to the foundation. The Non-bearing wall on the other hand is a type of wall that is only able to carry its weight (Jester, 2014). It cannot be able to support weight or pressure that is exerted from the foundation or pressure that comes from the above. The type of materials that is used in the construction of these Walls also varies or is different from one another. Some of the materials that are used in the building of the load bearing wall include the Stone wall, Masonry Wall, Retaining Wall and engineering walls that are made of brick that are in the dimensions of 115mm and 225mm(Chudley & Greeno, 2013). It is important to note the fact that the process of building Walls is proportional, this means that as the height increases, the thickness of the wall also needs to be expanded on. Below is a diagram that clearly depicts on this type of Wall. One is in sketch form while the other is in 3D form.

The non – bearing wall on the other hand is a type of Wall that greatly from the bearing Wall in a number of ways(Henriquez, 2014). This type of Wall is also known as the interior Wall. There are different types of non –bearing Walls and they include those that are made by Brick walls, Hollow bricks, Façade bricks as well as Concrete blocks that are Hollow in nature(Henriquez, 2014). In this case, most brick walls are normally made of Bricks that are in the dimensions of 115mm by 225mm(Kodur & Harmathy, 2016). The figure below is 3D image of different sample of non – load bearing Walls. Each sample reflects on a different type of material that was used during the Construction phase.

During the process of constructing walls, it is important to consider the process of insulation(Emmitt & Gorse, 2013). This is a very important aspect when it comes to the construction of floors. Insulation of Walls can be divided into two parts: Internal and External insulation(Emmitt & Gorse, 2013). Internal insulation involves situations where the Walls have resistance that is sufficient especially when it comes to rain penetration or in instances where the external appearance is not desirable or permitted. The main disadvantage of this type of insulation is that it prevents the Wall from acting as a source that is able to store heat in areas that have constant but low temperatures. In this case, PIR which is commonly known as Polyisocyanurate is normally fixed on the inside of the Wall (Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). The PIR ought to be at least 150mm: below is a 3D diagram that explains on how internal insulation looks like.

External Wall Insulation on the other hand involves the process of insulating Walls by giving them a final touch to their exterior (Kodur & Harmathy, 2016). This is very important in the sense that it protects them from rain. The type of insulation to be used in this case depends on the user – specification. A good example that can be used to prove this fact is that in order to come up with a finishing that is attractive and suitable for everyone, materials that are used for cladding such as slate and tile may be used, weather boarding and sheathing that is profiled ought to be used. Finishes that are rendered can be done by use of glass that is cellular and insulants that in organic in nature (Henriquez, 2014). The diagrams below give a clear depiction that is involved in external insulation. These diagrams are in sketch and 3D forms.

It is important to note the fact that in order to completely establish walls that are strong and stable in the society (Ching, 2014). There are at least three important considerations that have to be highly considered. These considerations include whether the building is residential or a business structure. In case it is a residential building, it should go up more than three floors or stories, the second consideration is whether the building is a small storey building or not(Ching, 2014). The last type or consideration is whether the building is small and has annexes that are formed and are connecting to the residential building. A good example of sample of such a scenario includes outbuildings and garages. Residential homes ought to range from about 0 – 15 meters (Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). The maximum height that is allowed for the annexe is normally at 33 meters while the width ought to vary from not less half of the total height (Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). Blocks of concrete material that are used in the Construction process must have compressive strengths that range from 5N/mm2 and 2.8N/mm2 for buildings that have more than two Storeys (Chudley & Greeno, 2013). Three storey buildings should be made with blocks that have a compressive strength of not more than 2.7N/mm2.

The stability of walls is normally determined by a number of factors which include the Support that the Wall has especially from the lateral positions as well as the thickness of the Walls(Emmitt & Gorse, 2013). The thickness of the Wall depends on a number of factors such as the type of Wall, climate and Soil. For instance Cavity Walls are normally built with a rough thickness of about 90mm and it should also be at least 50mm in width(Khatib, 2016). The diagram below gives a brief summary of the considerations when it comes to the construction of these Walls. A table is also given to describe the type of support that is required in relation to the length of the Wall and type.

One of the most difficult phases of constructing Walls is spacing. Few personnel are able to master this art of spacing. In most cases, according to the Building association, the spacing ought to be between 450mm in vertical alignment and 900mm in the horizontal alignment (Emmitt & Gorse, 2013). In Joints or areas that we have openings such as doors and windows, spacing is reduced to roughly 300mm. Cavity Walls have a different spacing that ranges to 50 – 75 mm vertically and 750mm – 450 mm horizontally (Emmitt & Gorse, 2013). In conclusion, it is safe to the say the fact that the Construction of different types of Walls depends on the type of materials that are used. Materials are the most important elements for construction because they determine a number of factors such as the Stability and strength of the floor, its durability; whether it is going to last for a short or long period. The process of constructing walls should be taken slowly because this is one of the important parts of a building when it comes to laying the foundation.

References

Ching, F. D. (2014). Building construction illustrated. John Wiley & Sons.

Chudley, R., & Greeno, R. (2013). Building construction handbook. Routledge.

Emmitt, S., & Gorse, C. A. (2013). Barry's introduction to construction of buildings. John Wiley & Sons.

Henriquez, J. L. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,857,116. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Jester, T. C. (Ed.). (2014). Twentieth-century building materials: History and conservation. Getty Publications.

Khatib, J. (Ed.). (2016). Sustainability of construction materials. Woodhead Publishing.

Kodur, V. K. R., & Harmathy, T. Z. (2016). Properties of building materials. In SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering (pp. 277-324). Springer New York.

Lawson, M., Ogden, R., & Goodier, C. (2014). Design in modular construction. CRC Press.

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