Coronary Heart Disease

Junior (College 3rd year) ・Healthcare&Medicine ・APA ・6 Sources

In self-care, patient is to engage in physical activities, eating healthy and balanced diet, quit habits such as smoking and stress management. Medications includes diuretics, ACE inhibitor, Calcium channel blocker, Beta blocker and Vasodilator (Appel, Llinas, Johns Hopkins, 2007,p.49) Constant checkups with a specialist; cardiologist or a primary care provider. Hypertension affects nearly 50 million Americans but more frequently on the African Americans.

African Americans do not have a culture of taking blood pressure and have an attitude towards it. (Chobanian, Aram, 2003) The perceptions of Hypertension varies from one of extremely serious, a threat to one’s to one of not serious at all. A majority of people lie in not serious thus do not take the prescribed preventive measures ( Research Association., & Hungarian Kidney Foundation, 2005). It is considered as an old age disease. (myth)

It is estimated to have caused close to 7.5 million deaths and contributes 12.8% of total deaths. (Research Association., & Hungarian Kidney Foundation, 2005).
The rate of uncontrolled hypertension rose from 600 million in 1998 to 1 billion in 2008. Over the years, the prevalence of the disease among adults aged 25 has increased to 40% in 2008. (Chobanian, Aram, 2003)


National Hypertension Foundation
World Health Organization.
Funding by Government and private sectors

It as an impact on one’s lifestyle and habits. One has to change their habit such as smoking and adopt a healthy lifestyle.
It represents 12.8% of global deaths thus has led to loss of loved ones in

Coronary Heart Disease

Treatment involves self-care, medications and surgery.
A healthy eating habit including low fat diet, physical exercise, good lifestyle habits, quitting smoking and weight loss programs.
Medication includes, beta blocker, statitin, calcium channel blocker, blood thinners and other heart medication (Appel, Llinas, Johns Hopkins, 2007, p. 52).
A consistent medical procedure and checkups is important. Angioplasty and coronary stent surgery may be needed. Considered one of the most dangerous heart diseases.
Dietary patterns is considered one of the contributors to the increased rated of coronary disease. Fact. Attitudes to lifestyle is also a contributor to coronary disease. Fact.

Coronary disease is the most common type of heart disease and that has led to an estimated deaths of 405,309 people in 2008 ( Darr, Aliya, Felicity Astin, Karl Atkin, 2008, p.98)
Close to 785,000 Americans have already had their first attack of coronary disease while 470,000 have had their two or more attacks.
Heart diseases contribute close to 25% of total deaths in one to four years. ( Darr, Aliya, Felicity Astin, Karl Atkin, 2008, p.102)

Websites include

World Health Organization.
Funding by Government and private sectors
The American Association of Thoracic Surgery

In 2010, the United States government spent close to $108.9 million of its budget coronary heart disease. Heart disease in 2010 was considered the leading cause of death leading to loss of loved ones in families Treatment of coronary disease is quiet expensive since it involv lots of medication procedures and surgeries. For those with insurances, the medication may go above the cover and get into the families savings and may leave the families financially unstable. ( Darr, Aliya, Felicity Astin, Karl Atkin, 2008, p.112)


American Heart Association. (1973). Coronary risk handbook: Estimating risk of coronary heart disease in daily practice.

Andreoli, T. E., Ritz, E., Rosivall, L., Budapest Nephrology School. International Society of Nephrology, European Kidney

Research Association., & Hungarian Kidney Foundation. (2005). Nephrology, hypertension, dialysis, transplantation.

Appel, L. J., Llinas, R. H., & Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. (2007). Hypertension and stroke. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Medicine.

Chobanian, Aram V., et al. "The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report." Jama 289.19 (2003): 2560-2571.

Darr, Aliya, Felicity Astin, and Karl Atkin. "Causal attributions, lifestyle change, and coronary heart disease: illness beliefs of patients of South Asian and European origin living in the United Kingdom." Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care 37.2 (2008): 91-104.

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