Data Analysis of NGF

High School ・Biology ・MLA

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) For data analysis, a design was performed by Rita Levi-Montalcini to test the effect of NGF on the chick neuroblast hoard. NGF was used with snake venom in varying percentages. The snake venom and the NGF were mixed in ratios that were in opposition to each other. In the ratios, only the one in the middle had the same percentage. The chick neuroblasts were kept in place in the sarcoma 180 of the mouse. This is because it was done in the laboratory. The three samples used: on the left part of the table, chick neuroblasts from the mouse sarcoma 180 was added to 100% of NGF without any snake venom. The middle part of the table had chick neuroblasts in a 50% mixture of NGF and snake venom added. The middle chick neuroblasts had a mixture 50% of NGF and 50% of snake venom was added on to it too. Finally, the chick neuroblasts on the right side of the laboratory table had no NGF, but a 100% of snake venom was added on it.

The Nerve Growth Factor is found from many places like, birds, reptiles, fishes, mammals and amphibians. These species, during development, synthesize and release the Nerve Growth Factor, when developing, hence stimulating the growth of nerve fiber. The Nerve Growth Factor facilitates the growth of the nerve fiber through allowing the fiber grow towards them and transports them back to the cell body. When the species develop, they produce sensory and sympathetic nerve which are in excess. They, the excess nerves, survive if they produce the Nerve Growth Factor when they come into contact with the target organ. Finally, the technology has made it able to characterize the NGF.

Extinction of dinosaurs

Dinosaurs are in the reptile family of the clade Dinosaurian. They preceded the Triassic Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago. Where the dinosaurs came from is not known, hence being researched to date. It is assumed the dinosaurs existed between 231 and 243 years ago. They stopped dominating the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods 66 million years ago. This occurred when the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event was dominating. The dinosaurs were existing even in the 29th century, leaving the ‘avian dinosaurs’ the birds from the dinosaurs species behind dominating the latest century. They survived the huge extinction event.

The approximation of the 66 million years ago was made for the extinction event of the plants and animals, in fact three-quarters of them. All tetrapod weighing 25kilograms and above, except leatherback sea turtle and crocodile, did not survive. Both the Cretaceous and Mesozoic period came to an end living the Cenozoic Era, which is on to date. The K-Pg boundary is a thin layer which marks the geological record. This kind of thin layer is worldwide found in marine and terrestrial rocks. Metal iridium, rare in the earth’s crust, is found in the layer. This metal iridium is full of asteroids.

Luis Alvarez with his team of scientists proposed that the extinction of the dinosaurs was motivated by the massive comet or impact from the asteroid. The extinction of the dinosaur had effects on the plants and planktons, making them unable to process photosynthesis. It was discovered that the K-Pg boundary clay felt the asteroid impact to present debris. This was necessitated by the 180-kilometer-wide Chicxulub crater in the Gulf of Mexico in 1990’s.

Homing in salmon

Oncorhynchus spp, is the other name to the pacific Salmon. The Salmon are known for their behavior of homing, shifting from the grounds they feed in the ocean, to their natal river to the spawn. The salmon move through many places, like the oceans, rivers and lakes, giving different hints and maybe they also need the ability to sense the environment in which they navigate. Homing has made the sensing be easy, hence having a specialized spawning population which is significant, for their natural habitat. The young ones of the salmon learn the odor at their stage of life and they will later learn the odor at their adult stage too.

Salmon begin at their juvenile stage to enter the sea and imprint on the magnetic field which exists. They find their way back home through many thousands of kilometers until they grow, still looking for their way back home. They use the same magnetic field in the coast to reach their homes using the same coastal location they used while they were juvenile. Many sea creatures use the great effect of the earth’s magnetic field and use it to guide them through their way back home in their life time.

The behavior of the salmon is believed to vary, because of the magnetic field of the earth which varies gradually with time. This is because the salmon follows the magnetic fields throughout their lives; their movement has helped scientists predict earthquakes. The way in which the salmon navigate would show how they distribute. This is the best way of predicting their distribution. Based on this fact, the distribution mechanism, comparability of the previous data collected resembles the current ones collected too.

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