Deuterostome of Animals

Freshman (College 1st year) ・Biology ・MLA ・2 Sources

Many centuries in the past saw the migration of some monkeys to South America where they advanced in isolation. They were known as the new world monkeys. Later, anthropoids closing in Africa separated into lineages hence giving rise to historic world monkeys. Old world monkeys are closer to man since they share some elements with humans such as a better-developed brain, small ear pinnae, developed facial muscles and touchy fingerprints.

Although monkeys may look similar, an enough examination may reveal a special and distinctive difference between new world and ancient world monkeys. Old world monkeys are found in Asia, and they have down facing nose, nostrils that are nearer and open downward, two premolars and molars that have sharply connected cusps (Henderickson, James and Marilee 123). New world monkeys are different from old world monkeys as they are found in south and central America, they have flattened nose, their nostrils are far apart and open to the side, they have three premolars and molars that are relatively large.

Neotenic in humans is the state that characterizes slow or delays in body development that results in features such as large head, flat face, and short arms. Around 2.4 million years ago, a muscle gene underwent a disabling alteration. As such, the alteration resulted in the enlargement of brains of the lineage that evolved into modern humans hence the differences between apes and human beings. It also led to the development of small jaws (Bruce, Patrick and Mark 25). Besides, gene mutation amounted to the beginning of ancestral triumph of brain over brawn. The mutated gene accounted for the more graceful human jaw compared to apes that have protruding jaw and facial ridges.

Works cited

Henderickson, Anita E., James R. Wilson, and Marilee P. Ogren. "The neurological organization of pathways between the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex in old world and new world primates." Journal of Comparative Neurology 182.1 (1978): 123-136.

Bruce, Vicki, Patrick R. Green, and Mark A. Georgeson. Visual perception: Physiology, psychology, & ecology. Psychology Press, 2003.

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