Different Oils and Their Effect on Health

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Essential oils (volatile oils) are perfumed compounds that can be extracted from plants. The phrase “essential” is a derivative from “essence”, which means scented smell or taste. They are distilled from the barks, stems, leaves, roots or other plant elements. Different plants are used to produce the a range of essential oils in the market. These oils are primarily composed of hydrocarbon terpenes such as pinene and their oxygenated derivatives such as ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and esters amongst others. The environmental and ecological conditions of the plants additionally play a critical role in identifying the concentrations of these compounds. Therefore, there is a variety of the essential oils of the essential oils depending on their extraction. This study focuses on the extraction and the benefits of the essential oils in the modern society.

Extraction of Essential Oils

Essential oils are extracted in two forms the saturated and the unsaturated form. The monounsaturated oils contain the fatty acids and are essential in the human body. The process of their extraction is based on application high temperature and moisturizing benefits and is commonly being processed through microwave ovens or by distillation.
The human body already has the saturated oils since they are generated within the human body while the monounsaturated oils are extracted from the vegetables, olive soybean, sunflower and palm oil (Pavela and Benelli 127). For that reason, an individual can obtain these nutrients by consumption of these plans or they can access the oils from the health care centre as supplements to their diets.
The local geography, climatic conditions, time of plant harvesting and the manner of processing, packaging, and storage are some of the factors that influence the chemistry and quality of essential oils extracted from plants. Every plant has a unique and distinctive composition, and thus the essential oils often vary. Therefore, similar plants from different regions may yield different concentrations of certain essential oils, or they may have completely different compositions in some instances (Hüsnü, Başer, and Demirci 60). These factors and variations are particularly taken into account when harvesting essential oils from plants for pharmaceutical uses. The extraction processes include distilled steam extraction, expression extraction and extraction with organic solvents among others.
The most common and simplest method of extraction of essential oils is the steam distillation method. The technique involves the processing of plants in a gripping chamber by passing steam through them. The steam moves into the tiny sacs that contain the essential oils and makes them burst. The heat from the steam makes these volatile oils evaporate from the plant. The resulting oil vapor passes through a cavity into a refrigerated condenser. Here, the steam and the oil cool down into the liquid state. The liquid (called hydrosol) contains water and the essential oils (Bajpai, Sharma, and Baek 585). Numerous scientific techniques such as chromatography can be used to derive specific essential oil components from these mixtures.
The standardization of the extracted products poses great difficulties to the researchers and scientists. Bajpai, Sharma and Baek claim that the difficulty that results from standardization is that it makes the final products not to appear natural, reliable and genuine. Therefore, such inconsistency regarding the items, place and the setting is a great challenge to ease a valid research in the long run in relation to time. Currently, the Global Standards Society has been coming up with values for every essential oil which nourishment of putting the proper applications of primary biochemical elements.
The next challenge affecting the essential oil is determining their specific effects on the human subjects. According to Pavela and Giovanni (2016), it is challenging to carry out research which involves distinctively two groups. One team gets a tentative substance while the other acquires a placebo compound. When using scented materials, it is meticulous to carry out the blinded research. Individual studies have blinded patients by use of masks while some have used alternative scents which are assumed to have fragrance with no therapeutic association. Consequently, it is difficult to explain or relate how essential oils affect individuals.
Essential Oils: Nutrition and Anti-Aging Effect on Human Body
Oils are a primary source of energy for the human body. They are commonly used for medical treatment of bronchitis, ulcers, digestion problems matters, and for skin care. Nutritional effect of essential oils on human body turns them to the highly productive source of energy delivered in fatty acids.
Therefore, a person with difficulty in producing enough energy for the varied activities either within or without the body can eat a lot of oils in their diets. According to Andrea Bontempo (2017), Independent Distributer and Member of Young Living Essential Oils, “with the Vitality brand of essential oils, people can use them get the proper nutrients in their body.” Getting the proper nutrients with the vitality line is a healthy way for individuals to explore the variety of nutritious and delicious ways. When the oils are taken in the right quantities, they help in improving the nervous system of an individual. The nervous system is enhanced by increasing the efficacy of the system whereby, messages are sent to the nervous system in a better manner. Besides the oils help in improving the absorption of the nutrients in the human body, some the nutrients absorbed in the intestine include the vitamins such as vitamin A and vitamin K. The vitamins are then stored in the form of body fats.
Furthermore, the oils assist in regulating the hormones. Hormones are components of a human body system and are important as they trigger different responses in the human body: “Excessiveness or shortage of the hormones in the human body results in the poor health condition of the individual” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay Sharma, and Kwang-Hyun Baek 267). Therefore, a balance between the human hormones is crucial so as to avoid diseases that result from a deficiency of certain hormones in the human body system. Some of the diseases that may result from hormonal imbalance include diabetes. The oils also help in lubricating the human skin. To have a healthy glowing skin, it is important that the individual to take few oils in their diet, because “oil intake is the best option on rejuvenating the individual's’ skin” (Parker 87). Skin is a delicate organ, and it requires proper attention. Therefore, the addition of oils in one's’ diet is important. On the other hand, the oils help in cushioning the human organs.
In addition, people love a well-prepared meal with tantalizing taste. The oils are useful in improving the taste of given meals. To have a delicious meal, the individuals preparing the meal can use oil as an additive. Different oils can be used to boost the taste of the meals based on the individual's’ tastes and preferences. The oils also add a smooth texture to the meals that the people consume. Individuals, therefore, end up having a soft, and tasty meal. However, too much saturated oils intake in the body is not healthy since it results in cholesterol build up. In case the human body has bad cholesterol the health of the individual is at risk since the high cholesterol may lead to high blood pressure. To reduce the chores role in the person’s body, an individual should consume large amounts of the unsaturated oils, considering that “some of the sources of the unsaturated oils include the fish oils and the plant oils” (Parker 87). The flora and fishes have the both Omega-3 and six fatty acids which are unsaturated oils. Most of the traditional diets do not have the oils. However insufficient of the oils in the modern diets can be supplemented by the use of fatty acid supplements. The supplements come in either syrup or tablet forms. However, a consultation with a physician should be conducted before taking the essential oils supplements.
The health benefits of essential oils can be outlined as structures that include astringent, cicatrizing, disinfectant, antiseptic, and diuretic among others. Some of these essential oils consist disinfecting elements and antifungal elements. Indispensable oils are well-known to be infinitesimal in molecular magnitude, which rationalizes the reason why the oils are absorbable through the skin pores for the nourishment and moisturizing purposes. The above elements make them perfect basic in individual care mixes that are intended for softening, nurturing and healing the skin. Indispensable oils do not accumulate in the human body. Instead, they only provide the healing power after which they pass through. Some of these oils that are recommended for the healing ability are lavender, peppermint, rosemary, grapefruits among others.
For example, scholars have revealed that Rosemary essential oil assists mortal brain to work correctly. Particularly the rosemary essential oil provides a healing ability to improve the performance of the human brain and as well easing the memory. Moreover, the rosemary essence helps a person in performing various tests. Fascinatingly, in some research conducted by various researchers such as Raut and Sankunny (2014), establish that those individuals who had breathed in either rosemary or lavender felt peaceful. Further examination of lavender revealed that a small reduction in the presentation in occupied memory and the inhalants also practiced weakened response period concerning responsiveness and memory-based responsibilities administration. However, “rosemary created a substantial improvement in a presentation in the whole quality of essence concerning secondary memory fundamentals; as well it enabled a damage of recall rapidity associated to remember regulation” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek 587). Regarding attitude, a lot of contrasts were made which exposed that the olfactory structures of the above essential oils could yield in ideal impacts on brain presentation and important properties on mood.
It is not easy to evade the over inspiring location or work environment. Though, it is probable to apply the needed oils for the purpose of soothing and minimizing the stress levels. “For example, the University of Tokyo discovered that linalool, in the year 2009, an elementary composite in most of the necessary oils and plants have the ability to minimize the anxiety levels and improve the insusceptible system of the investigational rats to almost normal level” (Young 135). Of the essential oils used for the purpose of reducing the stress levels include the following: Lemon, Cedar wood, Grapefruits, and Lavender. Vital oils are important as they help in increasing alertness of the brain. Based on the study peppermint is one of the best oil that can be used in improving brain alertness. To have increased brain alertness, the individual is expected to inhale the peppermint fragrance and experience the effect.
The core oils are also used in place of anti-aging agents. Some of the essential oil such as Prophylactic ensure replication of high-quality cells and maintains the already existing ones and the body tissues: “When an individual use some of these essentials oils that have the ability to nourish the skin and provide the ant-aging effect their skins look younger and glows more just as the oils are expected to“(Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek 588). The essential oils are supposed to remove wrinkles in the human skin and sunspots around the human eyes and cheeks. Besides, the oils are used for tightening the human skin all over the body. Regardless of time, making the individuals’ skins to be well moisturized may not be easy. For instance, during the winter seasons, the absence of humidity and presence of cold air makes person's skin to more dry: “As opposed to the summer seasons where the human skin is exposed to the solar rays making the skin to be in need of more hydration to make it conditioned” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek 589). Consequently, as individuals plan on various ways to make themselves feel better, they should consider using skin conditioners and protective lotions, for instance, in the case of sunbathing. On the other hand, some of the creams in the various beauty shops do not have the skin condition elements and may at times end up exposing the human skin to the ultra-rays causing sunburns. Undoubtedly, the use of“ body oils is one of the best methods of ensuring that an individual’s skin is well moisturized and relaxed.” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek 589). Whereas some people think that oils and skin are not well-matched, having the idea that the oil can cause the body oilier, the fact of the substance is that oil upsurges the superiority of membrane because they soak very fast henceforth leave the skin conditioned throughout the day.

Processing of Essential Oils

Processing and storage of essential oils should be provided with no risk to security of employees that are involved into this work. A quality assurance standard for each type of oil is to be applied to practice by International Standards Organization. It defines regulatory policy to tackle with issues that may present major risk for human health.
Steam concentration method is well-known to be “one of the widely used in companies as a method of extracting the essential oils which are comprehensive of the current of the distant oil into a hollow absorbing the infrequent plant” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek 585). The resulting condensation makes the small bags that comprise the necessary oil bust. Thereafter, the subsequent lubricant is ecstatic by the vapor out of that hollow into a cooling refrigerator in which the vapor is as soon as air-conditioned into the liquid which is analytically referred as Hydrosol. Its conservation is useful, “because it comprises some of the plant's substances. For illustration, rose hydrosol is frequently used in humanoid membranes due to its sterile and relaxing potentials and also because of its pleasurable floral scent” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek 586). The chemistry of essential oils often is facilitated and affected by the local geography as well as the climatic conditions, including the season, time of the day and the period in which the harvesting of the plants are being done, the manner in which they are processed, packaging and storage methods. Every plant is distinctive and unique in its chemistry thus essential oils are not always similar. Comparatively, this is unlike from the pharmaceutical products which are often synthetically reproduced hence coming up with similar items every time. The essential oils can be manipulated to attain standardization. For instance, a particular chemical composition which was discovered to have a low concentration in a given year can be possibly be added to increase its strength to be similar as the previous batch.
According to an article about medicinal properties of essential oils, “the complication which comes with standardization makes the final product not to appear nature, authentic and not genuine” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek 586). Thus, such variability regarding the essential in the end regarding time, place and setting is a great challenge to facilitate valid research. Presently, the International Standards Organization has been coming up with standards for every essential oil which compost of arranging of suitable concentrations of primary chemical elements. Due to the above challenges they never found it easy to get any find to carry out research concerning essential oils. Nonetheless, the essential oils have been used on people forever. Therefore, they do not often fit into the current clinical research approach of experimenting essential oil with animal first thereafter testing the same with human beings. In case the researchers try they are unlikely to succeed since research review board tends to commend studies which adhere to more familiar and known scientific research path.

Benefits of Essential Oils

People have explored essential oils for many years to determine their uses and benefits to humanity. The uses vary depending on the plant of origin, chemical composition and quality of the oil products. The ubiquitous nature of plants made different cultures utilize the essential oils for different purposes to improve their quality of life. The major benefits of essential oils that have been discovered historically are anti-aging effect, treatment of depression / anxiety disorders, healing wounds, skin care, and improvement of nutrition. Since long ago, essential oils have been used for spiritual needs and aromatherapy.
Historically, essential oils were used in medications, perfumes, cosmetics and the recent uses in aromatherapy. The spiritual uses of essential oils are also well documented. For example, the Biblical story of Jesus shows that the wise men brought with them some essential oils such as myrrh and frankincense (Stewart 12).
One of the largest uses of essential oils is their pharmaceutical applications. The healing properties of these oils have been well studied and researched. The Egyptians have been credited to be among the first people to explore the medicinal values of plants, especially the use of essential oils. Through the ages, numerous medicinal values for these oils have been described. For instance, more than sixty essential oils are natural analgesics. They contain salicylate (the main ingredient in aspirin), which is a potent painkiller. Others are antimicrobial and can be used to cure bacterial infections on the skin or through inhaling.
The medical applications of vary according to the plants. Lavender, the most widely known essential oil, has strong antibacterial properties and has been used for manufacturing soaps and healing bites, scrapes and stings. Frankincense is considered to have antidepressant and muscle-relaxing abilities. It has also been studied for the possibility to kill cancerous cells (Ni et al. 253). Peppermint, on the other hand, can reduce fever, nausea and motion sickness. It has been suggested that it can be used to reduce headache when rubbed on the temples in combination with lavender. Other essential oils have been used in the manufacture of sedatives, anthelmintic, diuretics, expectorants, carminatives and other pharmaceutical uses.
The essential oils can be used as anti-aging products. These oils are prophylactic and can be used by the body to ensure there is a replication of high-quality cells. The essential oils also enable the body to carry out the normal maintenance of the existing cells and tissues. They nourish the tissue and are used to protect against microbial infections and acne. Therefore, continuous use of these essential oil products gives an individual a refurbished look, making them appear younger and smoother (Bajpai, Sharma and Baek 588). The essential oils also remove wrinkles and sunspots from the human skin. They also tighten the skin on the body. As a result, they are employed in numerous beauty products and also used in spars.
Aromatherapy is rapidly increasing in popularity in the present day. It is the most popular complementary and alternative medicinal source of this century as it solves psychological, physiological and physical problems. As a result, numerous studies have been dedicated to finding how aromatherapy can improve the quality of human life and treat diseases. It provides relief from mental, emotional and physical illnesses (Stewart 6). It has been found that the psychotherapeutic and medical properties of essential oils can create emotional and physical effects during aromatherapy massages. These effects include relieved pain, reduced stress, improved personal mood and overall body healing. Other aromatherapy benefits include the relaxation of muscles, reduced blood pressure, decreased abdominal spasm and constipation, reduced premenstrual syndrome in women and alleviated depression.
Essential oils are also great sources of nutrition. Fats are great sources of energy when consumed in the diet. They supplement carbohydrates during starvation to give the body the required energy. The essential oils are greatly beneficial to the human body as they are composed of unsaturated fats. Some oils from grapefruit and orange oils contain high amounts of monoterpenes, which inhibit the accumulation of toxins creating a balance in the body (Stewart 9). The accumulation of toxic substances in the body is one of the biggest causes of diseases including organ failure and cancer. Therefore, essential oils play a key role in inhibiting the accumulation of these toxics by helping their elimination from the body.
For instance, researchers have revealed rosemary essential oil assets human brain to work properly. Particular the smelling rosemary facilitate memory recall as well as improves one’s ability to perfume on the various test. Captivatingly, it some a study carried by Raut and Sankunny (2014) found out that those people who inhaled either rosemary or lavender felt relaxed. More analysis of lavender shown a slight decrease in the performance in working memory and the inhalants also experienced impaired reaction period regarding attention and memory-based tasks management. “Contrarily, rosemary yielded a considerable improvement in performance in the entire quality of psyche regarding secondary memory elements; as well it facilitated an impairment of memory speed compared to memory regulation” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek 587). Concerning mood, many comparisons were made which revealed the olfactory features of these above oils could result in yield ideal impacts on brain performance and significant effects on mood. According to Andrea Bontempo (2017), Independent Distributor and Member at Young Living Essential Oils “With using Rosemary Essential Oil, it has helped people’s memory to be stronger.” It is not easy to evade the over inspiring location or work environment. Though, it is probable to apply the needed oils for the purpose of soothing and minimizing the stress levels. For instance, in the year 2009, the University of Tokyo discovered linalool a basic compound in most of the essential oils and plants has the ability to reduce stress elevated immune system of experimental rats to almost ordinary level (Young 135). He suggests “that essential oil including cedar wood, lemon, grapefruits including lavender are safe and efficient methods of reducing stress.”
The essential oils act as anti-aging agents. Some essential oil including Prophylactic facilitate reproduction of healthy cells and maintains the already formed cells and tissues healthy: “When the one combines the aspects of essential oil with their inflexible abilities, he or she obtains an effective anti-aging quality which essential oils are always meant for” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek 588). They assist in eliminating sunspot reduce micro-wrinkles around the eye and on the cheeks and frequently tone and tighten human skin in the entire body.
Irrespective of time, making people's skin to be highly moisturized may not be easy. “During winter absence of humidity and cold air makes one's skin to a bit dry, whereas in the summer much exposure of to the sun makes the skin to need more hydration to make it moisturized” (Bajpai, Vivek, Ajay, and Baek589). Thus, when contemplating on the appropriate way to make you feel better, one always give body lotions considerations. “However, some of these creams have a tendency to dry off and peel off the skin fast, but alternatively body oil is the best way to go to keep your skin moisturized and feel relaxed” (Bajpai,Vivek, Ajay, and Baek589). While some people think oil and skin are not compatible, having the notion that the oil could make the body greasier, the truth of the matter is that oil increases the quality of skin since they drench fast hence leave the skin moisturized the whole day.

Common Essential Oils and Their Uses

There are thousands of essential oils in the universe, and each has different chemical and physical properties. The essential oils also have different concentrations of hydrocarbon terpenes making their uses and qualities vary from plant to plant. However, there are certain plant extracts whose oils have been recognized for their particular benefits in the healing, nutrition or general improvement of the quality of life. The most common essential oils are Lavender oil, Rosemary oil, Eucalyptus oil, Peppermint oil, Blue Chamomile oil, and Frankincense, Lemon, Cedar Wood, and Grapefruit oil.
The essential oils are generally safe to use and do not pose an imminent danger to the user. However, haphazard use of these products may lead to unwanted effects. As a result, attention is needed to ensure one understands where each essential oil is applicable before first using it. Some antimicrobial essential oils may affect the human gut through killing the normal flora and exposing it to harmful bacteria. They might also kill even the tissue cells indiscriminately. It is, therefore, paramount to understand the chemistry and benefits of these common essential oils as they can serve as an alternative to synthetic pharmaceutical products in the market.

Lavender oil

Lavender oil (derived from the fresh flowers of the lavender plant) is one of the commonest essential oils in the world. It has been used to slow down the activities of the central nervous system, improve concentration, lead to better sleep quality and heal alopecia areata (Woelk and Schläfke 95). The study of Woelk and Schläfke showed that this essential oil can alleviate generalized anxiety disorder without the potential for abuse or sedative effects that the other cures cause.

Eucalyptus oil

The leaves of Eucalyptus adorata are used to extract the eucalyptus oil that is a powerful biocide. The essential oil has been used for its insecticide, antimicrobial, acaricidal, nematicidal and herbicidal properties. It is strongly efficient against some bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus and streptococcus. The steam from boiling eucalyptus leaves has also been recommended as a cure for congestion and persistent cough (Batish et al. 2166). Its aroma acts as an expectorant, which helps the loosen phlegm in lungs and nasal passages. A combination of peppermint and eucalyptus oils can boost the cognitive performance of an individual while reducing headaches. The combination can also provide mental relaxation.

Peppermint oil

The peppermint oil is another essential oil that has been hailed for its medicinal properties. It is used to alleviate headache, nausea, indigestion, gas, stomach upsets and anxiety. The peppermint oil works on the digestive system where it speeds up the rates of waste elimination. It relaxes the stomach’s involuntary smooth muscle to create an antispasmodic effect. The soothing nature of this essential oil can reduce the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome by up to 80% (Grigoleit Grigoleit 614). The methanol in peppermint oil interacts with the electrolytes as they are moving across cell membranes, therefore stopping the involuntary contractions of the gut.

Blue Chamomile oil

The essential oil is extracted from the German chamomile plant. The steam extraction process causes the azulene in the plant to darken into a brilliant azure, inky blue or dark green color. However, the color fades and may turn into dark yellow after some period of storage. The oil extract has been used for millennia to provide therapeutic effects. The blue chamomile oil was used traditionally to heal wounds, eczema, burns, bruises, mastitis and canker sores among other conditions (Srivastava, Shankar, and Gupta 896). Chamomile also produces anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of the body processes that lead to inflammation. It has been suggested that it may also cure stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori. Like lavender, chamomile also offers an anti-anxiety effect and can be used to treat people with mild anxiety problems.

Frankincense

Frankincense (Olibanum-Boswelliacarteri) is extracted as a resin from Boswellia tree. The Bible has accounts of the oil being used to heal the spirit, mind and the body, therefore, creating a balance in the health of the individuals. It was used for holy purposes including the anointment of kings and priests. Its significance and perceived value even made it more expensive than gold, and even a means of trade (Stewart 12). In some traditions, the oil was used to appease God and prevent his wrath on humans (Ni et al. 254). However, the significance of frankincense extends beyond the spiritual realm. The sweet and fresh aroma of the oil has made it revered in perfumery industries. Frankincense also contains expectorant properties and can be used to alleviate excessive coughing, asthma and bronchitis.

Conclusion

In conclusion, essential oils have been found by researchers to bear positive benefits for various health issues that include but not limited to pain, depressions, infections, anxiety, tumors, nausea, and premenstrual syndromes. These uses of the oils have been exploited by individuals through a different procedure, through inhalation, rubbing and by massaging the body. Moreover, the oils can be used to improve the quality of skin and as an anti-aging treatment.

Works Cited

Bajpai, Vivek K., Ajay Sharma, and Kwang-Hyun Baek. "Antibacterial mode of action of
Cudraniatricuspidata fruit essential oil, affecting membrane permeability and surface characteristics of foodborne pathogens." Food Control 32.2 (2013): 582-590.
Batish, Daizy R., et al. "Eucalyptus Essential Oil as A Natural Pesticide." Forest Ecology and Management 256.12 (2008): 2166-2174.
Bontempo, Andrea, Personal Interview, 28 January 2017
Grigoleit, H-G., Grigoleit, P. "Pharmacology and Preclinical Pharmacokinetics of Peppermint Oil." Phytomedicine 12.8 (2005): 612-616.
Hüsnü, K., Can Başer, and FatihDemirci. "Chemistry of Essential Oils." Flavours and Fragrances. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2007. 43-86.
Ni, Xiao, et al. "Frankincense Essential Oil Prepared from Hydrodistillationof BoswelliaSacra Gum Resins Induces Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Death in Cultures and in a Xenograft Murine Model." BMC complementary and alternative medicine 12.1 (2012): 253.
Parker, Philip M. World Market for Essential Oils Including concretes, Absolutes, Resinoids, Concentrates, and Terpenic By- Products of Essential Oils, The: 2007 Global Trade Perspective. ICON Group, 2007.
Pavela, Roman, and Giovanni Benelli. "Essential Oils as Ecofriendly Biopesticides? Challenges and Constraints." Trends in Plant Science 21.12 (2016): 1000-1007.
Raut, Jayant Shankar, and Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil. "A status review on the medicinal
properties of essential oils." Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014): 250-264.
Srivastava, Janmejai K., Eswar Shankar, and Sanjay Gupta. "Chamomile: A Herbal Medicine of the Past with Bright Future." Molecular medicine reports 3.6 (2010): 895.
Stewart, David. The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple: God's Love Manifest in Molecules. Care Publications, 2005.
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Young, D. Gary, et al. "Massaging topical oils applicator." U.S. Patent No. 9,211,228. 15 Dec.
2015.

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