Disabilities in Children

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Disability can be defined as the impairment that can be physical, mental, sensory, cognitive, and developmental or a combination of all. Mostly it is present at birth and it can also occur during a person's lifetime. Most people with disabilities encounter a number of challenges in their day to day activities. Stigmas and community misconceptions are the main challenge they face. They are neglected and discriminated against by others leading to low self-esteem. Some regard their disabilities as curse or taboo(Sherrill 29). They are also not allowed to effectively participate in laws and policy making. Following these challenges, a number of reforms have been put in place to ensure that there is an active participation and inclusion of disabled persons in public schools. There has been a rapid rise in the number of students with disabilities in these schools for the last one decade all over the world. The inclusion of students with disabilities in public classrooms has become a trend in many education facilities (Joshi 25). Their inclusion is based on the social advantages that the overall students gain in these classes.

Types of disabilities

There are many different types of disabilities which is classified into the following categories- intellectual disability, mental illness, sensory disability and physical disability.

Intellectual Disability

It may result from a genetic state, environmental issues, illness, and trouble during pregnancy. An intellectual disability is characterized by an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of below 70 and also difficulty in communication and socialization (Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine 79). These problems include;

Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)

It is a complex inherent state that affects a lot of body parts. This disability is a bit composite and it is developed by the deformity in the genes of genetic materials in the body (chromosome 15). The symptoms of this disability vary but short physique and reduced muscle tone are common (Prader Willi Syndrome Assoc. 114).


This state is characterized by poor growth, feeding problems, weak muscles, and delayed development. It starts at childhood and affects an individual who develops greedy desire, which leads to chronic overeating and obesity. Intellectual disability is present and students find difficulty in language and also in solving mathematics problems.


The tutor should meet the parents to discuss o how they can help the learner. This is important because the teacher is able to understand the strengths, weakness, and interest of that particular student. The teacher should develop a system whereby he can share information with relevant teaching staff about the health condition and some successful measures. The teacher might involve other staff members who are closer to the student to work with them. The teacher should develop a strategy for storing snacks and lunch for a child suffering from Prader Willi.


Students suffering from Prader Willi should have a group meeting. These meetings should highly advocate on how they can avoid compulsive eating. They should also engage in educational and support services that will help them deal with their eating habits.

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)

The main cause of this disability in the world is inheritance. It is usually an inherent state that is caused by an alteration in the X chromosome. People born with Fragile X syndrome highly experience an extensive series of physical, behavioral, developmental, and emotional problems. However, the levels of sternness can be varied. Anxiety, communication problems, developmental delay, poor social interaction, intellectual problem, and poor eye contact are some of the common signs of this disability. The number of men compared to the number of women affected by this syndrome is slightly high (Mondimore 23).

A person with Fragile X syndrome is supposed to be involved in adaptive physical education. They are supposed to be introduced to life skills classes where they can learn to communicate and interact with others. To become adaptive in class, they should be taught by a specially trained person who is able to understand their developmental condition.
Students suffering from this disability have a variety of needs while others have a lot of needs. For this reason, it is important to involve them in activities like sporting and employing special trainers who are able to communicate and associate with them.

Down syndrome

It is not an illness but a genetic disorder that usually occurs when a person is born with partial or full additional production of chromosome 21 in their Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). It is highly present in children and develops learning disabilities. It has a number of usual physical characteristics and also incidences of higher than normal respiration and hearts conditions.
Many people who are affected by Down syndrome will have problems in learning and this varies largely from one individual to another. A slight upward incline of the eye, a short stature, and a rounded face is some of the physical features that can affect a person who is associated with Down syndrome. Despite several common physical features, a person with Down syndrome resembles every member of the family more than they look a lot like each other.

Adaptation in classroom

It is important as a teacher or staff member to be enthusiastic and has high expectation of people with Down syndrome by encouraging them. It is also very important to understand their disability and offer instruction that is beneficial to them. Also, it is important to know the character of everyone, if they are very distractive it is important to keep them away from windows and doors. As a teacher, it is required of one to set aside some time to give instruction to a student on a one-on-one basis. It is also very important to involve them in question and give them enough time for answering their questions.


People with Down syndrome should also be involved in special activities that other people are involved in. they should be involved in computer labs and be guided on how to use computers. They should also be allowed to participate in academic events. Other than that, they should be involved in sporting activities.

Developmental Delay

It is where a child takes longer than usual to develop what other children have already developed in life. These developments include talking, learning, moving, and behavior change. Delay in some children is temporary and their progress can be noticed as they grow. For others, the delay may become more important with time and can have an effect on their learning and education system(Data Research, 41).


A development delay is detectable in children by the way they interact with others. The delay can also be noticed when children are struggling to make friends in their own age but they opt to make friends who are younger than them.


While teaching students about developmental delays, it is important to use boundary markers. They help children to know the task of the space that is set aside. They are able to understand that space is set aside for playing or for study. It is also important to post a predictable and clear daily timetable. Also, it is significant to use strategies and formulate ways that make learning is clearly understood.


It is required of a teacher to assign duties to students like making them participate in social interaction. Children should be assigned voluntary roles like distributing snacks to others and also handing work materials. They can also act as peers and offer their knowledge to others through direct involvement in answering questions and by attending review meetings.

Fatal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)

It is a condition that is caused by exposing the unborn fetus to alcohol. When a pregnant mother is exposed to alcohol, it passes through the placenta into the bloodstream thereby exposing the baby. The baby acquires similar concentrations as the mother. There is no proven amount of alcohol that is proven and that women can drink during pregnancy. Small amounts of alcohol can affect the unborn child. The World Health Organization have been campaigning while counseling pregnant women to abstain from alcohol (Milhorn 7).


The symptoms can be detected through the deformation of joints, facial features, the damage to internal organs like heart and kidneys, behavioral crisis, poor remembrance and decision making, and learning difficulties.


Most students with this disability get a special education because they are not able to attend regular education settings. While studying they are given assistance in form of modification and adaptation from their specialists. Only a few students with fatal alcohol spectrum disorder cope to learn in regular school and they normally get help from speech specialist and resource specialists. These specialists are the key to success for most students with this kind of disability. The students also get assistance from the occupational therapists who are the member of educational bodies and they help improve their physical and mental brilliance.


Students with Fatal alcohol spectrum disorder are involved in social service activities to help them demonstrate a high level of proficiency. They are also involved in sporting activities to help grow their physical skills and explore some of their talents.

Physical disabilities

These are the disability that can affect a person either, temporarily or permanently depending on the physical mobility of that person. Physical disability can be diagnosed by observing person behaviors, physical capabilities, and the development of that person. They are the most common disabilities and are present in boys than in girls.

Acquired Brain Injury

This is a disability that is caused by brain damage after birth. They are brought about by very many factors including drugs and alcohol, head blow, stroke, cancer, AIDs, and lack of enough oxygen in the brain (Catani and Schotten 33).


Most people with this disability are very slow at processing information, finding a solution, and planning. They also experience behavioral change, personality change, sensory and physical abilities change, or sometimes changes in way of learning and thinking.


The teachers are supposed to come up with a plan for teaching students with traumatic brain injury and ensure that they maximize learning. The teachers are supposed to ensure people with these disabilities can improve their concentration and be able to execute a function. They should make sure that the student sits near to them. They should be able to understand their disabilities and know when they can offer tutorials especially when the attention of the student is best. They need to also help them by involving them in small groups and making them avoid destructions by ensuring they are not close to doorways and windows.


The educators should ensure that they involve the students in activities that improve their memory. They are supposed to give multiple choice tests which will accelerate their memory. They should also involve the student in question and answers which will be a good indication of comprehension. Sporting activities with others will also help stimulate their memory.

Muscular Dystrophy

It is a group of diseases cause progressive flaw and loss of muscle weight. In this disability, the abnormal genes are responsible for interference with protein production which is essential information of healthy muscle. There are very many types of muscular dystrophy each having a different causative factor(Burnett, Rioux and Brenda Wong 89).


The symptoms can vary; they can include breathing troubles, walking difficulty, restriction in joint movement, and heart problems. Some features of the most common diseases appear in childhood while others do not show up immediately. Other features of muscular dystrophy include frequent falls, difficulty in standing, and walking on toes.


Teachers need to work with a therapist to ensure that students with muscular dystrophy are progressing well and also access their impacts on classroom activities. The most important thing, they must ensure the learners have adequate security. A teacher should focus mainly on educational content to help improve physical conditions of the students. The tutors should also engage the learners in activities that are very productive, suitable, and enjoyment. The educators are supposed to be aware of the students need and support them in case of a crisis.


Students with muscular dystrophy have developed an interest in sporting activities such as sailing in boats and wheelchairs sports. This has helped improve their physical condition and it has been seen as one of the major reforms in disability education. Some learners have shown interest in less physical activities such as technology-based communication, craft, hobbies, art, drama, and social networking. By introducing a new activity of a child means providing an opportunity to learn, extend their abilities, meeting new friends and growing physically.

Spinal Cord Injury

It is a damage that can either be permanent or temporary on the spinal cord and causes changes in strength and other functions of the body. The major cause of this injury is lack of enough oxygen supply to the spinal cord or when a lot of pressure is exerted on the spinal cord. When the spinal cord of an individual is damage a person loses feelings and finds difficulty in moving.


People with spinal cord injuries find it difficult to walk and move their arms. They sometimes stop breathing and they are unable to react to stimuli and they appear to be asleep. Most of the affected are uncomfortable, feels distracting pain, and other forms of throbbing that result in headaches.


It is important to accommodate students with spinal cord injuries and diseases to education classrooms. It is important for teachers to offer special education to such people. The teachers should help them with every need possible and by encouraging them. The teachers should provide guidance on the evolving technology in both the class and functional work. The tutors are supposed to aid the learners in physical and mental activities so as they can realize their educational goals and success.


The learners should are supposed to act as peers for the new students. It is also important to involve in physical activities like sports. This helps keep them fit if they dedicate their time on a daily basis. The educator should encourage them to be vigorous every day and this may lead to the establishment of a routine that can help them the rest of their life.


It is a neurological state whereby an individual experiences frequent seizures as a result of shock in the brain. Seizure affects a person’s usual movement, change the individual’s behavior, cause a sensation or an odd feeling, and also can cause a person to become unconscious. Epilepsy has no major cause but it can be caused by brain injuries, structural abnormalities, brain infections, strokes, and cancer. Epilepsy in people varies according to their nature. Some are able to control their disability by use of medication while others cannot. The condition is not long lasting for everyone with epilepsy (Krishnamoorthy, Shorvon and Schachter 17).


Characteristic of people with epilepsy can be categorized as either physical or mental and emotional. In physical characteristic, an individual is unable to stand or walk in an upright manner. Also, children are affected by the seizure that originates from the brain making them struggle very much. Lack of sleep and extreme fatigue is another physical characteristic of people affected by epilepsy. The mental and emotional characteristic is evident because ellipsis renders an individual a state of unresponsiveness. It also makes people forget what is happening around them. Epilepsy also makes individual to cower without an identifiable source of the threat.


Teaching students with epilepsy should be done group work. A teacher is supposed to include people with epilepsy in groups learning to help them benefit from their peers. A teacher is also required to involve the student in task analysis. The specified tasks are broken down into more basic steps that will enable easy teaching and learning. A tutor is supposed to use repletion in classes to ensure that each and every leaner has understood the content.


It is important to involve a child with epilepsy into practical lessons and activities. Lessons like science and PE are safe and very crucial for children. It is also important to involve them in communal and social activity which in turn improves their communication and boosts their self-esteem.

Cerebral Palsy

It is a neurological shock that is caused by a non-progressive brain damage or a distortion that occurs as the child's brain is growing. It is associated with posture, movement and muscle tone. It is mainly caused by an injury in the brain before or during birth, that is caused by lack of enough supply of oxygen and blood in the brain. Meningitis in children, falling ill during pregnancy, untimely birth, and accidental injury to the brain could all cause. Most people with this disability are likely to experience epilepsy, lacks awareness, and they take a long time to understand simple concepts (Eĭdinova, Pravdina-Vinarskaia and Woods 14).


Most people with Cerebral palsy find it difficult to eat and talk. Many signs of this impairment are not readily available at birth and may appear within the first three years as the brain and the child grow. Some associative conditions like seizures sensory impairment and difficulty in learning may occur frequently. It may also cause delays in crawling, walking, and rolling over which is a key concern for growth.


Many children with cerebral palsy disability have an average or above average Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Therefore, they need to have access to similar education their peers got. However, some modification of project guide, worksheets, and test forms need to be put in place to enable the learners to adapt. Teachers should set up their rooms so as to enable that using wheelchair move swiftly. Adaptive physical learning is supposed to be taught so that the children can learn different traditions.


The children suffering from cerebral palsy should be included in many class activities that are considered to be appropriate for them. The activities should be supervised by specialists who are able to gauge and know when the child needs what. Given support, most of these children will succeed and receive standard high school diploma.


Dwarfism can be defined as the state in which an individual has nonstandard skeletal growth. There are two categories of dwarfism. Disproportionate dwarfism where some are smaller compared to others that are either average or above average. The proportionate dwarfism is where the entire body parts are proportionately small. Dwarfism in children may hinder their development and may experience delays; however, it does not have any connection with academic disability (Joshi 37).


There are different types of dwarfism and each type can affect a person differently. The common characteristics are; they have short legs and arms, bowed legs, swayed spine, and the prominent forehead.


It is required to welcome people with dwarfism in a learning environment. Since dwarfism does not affect the intellectual skills of a person, the same treatment should be offered to everyone in the class. Peers should help them access things that they cannot access and treat them according to their age and not their size. Dwarf students feel awkward and embarrassed around other learners. Educating oneself and many others about dwarfism can end bullying and increase self-confidence and peaceful coexistence between the dwarfs and other students.


There are limited exercises for dwarf students. It is important to participate in safety physical activities to help them keep fit.

Mental Illness

Mental illness is usually permanent or temporary. Mental illness has several drawbacks on the daily life of an individual. It may disrupt a person's daily work, the capability of doing work, and have a rewarding individual relationship (Mondimore 36).

Bipolar Disorder

It is a serious mental state noticeable by an alternating phase of excitement and despair. It was known as manic depression, it is accompanied by extreme mood swings including happiness and sadness. The emotions vary with time and can last for days or even months. A person with bipolar disability feeling does not make sense at all. Sometimes they cry very heavily while they laugh the rest of the time with no varied reason. The feeling is very strong to point where a person with bipolar disorder is unable to distinguish between a fantasy and a reality (Marcovitz 22).


The characteristic of this disorder varies between individuals and according to feeling. Some have clear mood swings with excitements and depression each lasting few months or sometimes stable between them. Other peoples spend years of low and high feel. At times, there is a mixed state; the two episodes take place once alternating one after the other. A person may feel depressed while at the same they may feel restless.


Since it is difficult for children with bipolar disorder to adopt structured education system, it is important to adapt assignments and classes to tolerate their disparity. It is also important to tolerate their behavior. This can be achieved through overlooking minor mistakes and recognition of major accomplishment and praising them. A safe place should be set for children with such disorders. This will help them whenever they are overwhelmed and they can always feel safe here.


It is important to encourage people with bipolar disorders and help them by seeking advice from professionals. It is also important to take action of learning about the disorder. This will help to equip you in time for a crisis. It is also important to be patient because healing takes time. This is essential because it prepares an individual for facing challenges and setbacks.


It is a mental illness that largely affects an individual's feeling, how they think and also the way they act. The exact cause of depression is not known, it is generally caused by family history, use of drugs and alcohol personal factors, and challenges in the brain (Milhorn 18).


Depression has a variety of characteristics and it normally affects each person in a different way. Depression can make an individual feel sad, lose interest and lack motivation, lose pleasure, feel worthless, anxiety, disturbed sleep, pain and impairment, loss of appetite, and physical aches.


There are various mechanisms that the teachers are supposed to put in place to enable students to cope with their depression. The teachers should provide homework before the bell rings which will help the students to have a secure referencing point. The teacher should also encourage the students to reach out to them whenever they feel at their worst. This is an excellent way of coping with their emotions. Teachers should start teaching students on mindfulness by being role models, and by creating time for meditation before exams to deal with anxiety.


The teachers and professional should involve depressed students in physical activities, help them keep contact with family, encourage them to join the war against drugs and substance abuse, and educate them on creating time for relaxation.


It is a mental illness that influences the thoughts of an individual, the way they feel, and acts, frequently distorting their opinion of authenticity. Most people with this disability find it hard in distinguishing between what is real and what is imaginary. Majority of the individual with this illness are not violent and do not pose any threat to others. There is no main cause of this disability. Some causes are genetics, viral infections, biology, and immune disorders(Weinberger and Harrison 134).


A person experiencing this disability can be noticed if; they experience a persistent sign of psychosis, they can have hallucinations, and also they can have delusions. Other characteristics of people with schizophrenia can include poor sentence construction, blunted emotions, low motivation, lack of ability to convey emotions, and lack craving for social relationships.


The educator should have proper knowledge and education about schizophrenia. This will help in communication between them and the parents because they are able to discuss the matter intelligently. They should also be aware of the treatment procedure, causes, and symptoms of the disability. They should work with students suffering from schizophrenia toward attaining both academic and social goals. The teacher should encourage active participation between a student with illness and others students as a way of promoting interaction.


The students should seek help from out-patient support groups. They include nurses, psychiatrists, case managers, and counselors who meet to regularly help the schizophrenic patient and reduce their mental status.

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD)

It is a mental illness that develops after witnessing or experiencing a tragic event which threatened a person’s life or safety or that of others close to that person. Events like sexual assault war, accidents, and natural calamity can highly trigger this kind of disability (Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: an assessment of the evidence 71).


A person experiencing this kind of disorder may have feelings of a strong fear, helplessness, or dismay. They usually remember the entire trauma when reminded of the actions that took place. Other characteristics include sleeping problems, being easily upset, being continuously on the look for danger, and lack of concentration.


The teachers should provide a safe environment for students with disabilities so as to improve learning and reduce stress. The tutor should create a motivational system that recognizes and awards students according to their merits. The educators should establish a conducive environment with their students. They should encourage active participation in the classroom in order to boost the students’ self-esteem.


The teachers should involve students suffering from Post-traumatic stress disorder to participate in field trips. They should also involve them in social and public works. In addition, students should participate in sporting activities to help them relieve their stress.


It is defined as the sentiment that is characterized by thoughts of being terrified, nervousness, and a physical variation like blood pressure. Individuals with anxiety typically have disturbing views and concerns. Anxiety may continue for a while without a particular reason and it is often more remarkable (Hina and Hina 59).


The main characteristics of anxiety are the thoughts and fear that are usually chronic and distressing and they normally interfere with a person’s way of living. Other features of this disorder are panic attacks, breathing problems, rapid heartbeat, sweating, and nausea.


Anxiety can make students underperform and much can be put in place to ensure that students excel in their learning. The teachers should ensure that the students seat within the learning environment. This will help students to engage themselves in classroom work and also discussions. They should also involve them in class participation, where the students are involved in yes or no answers. This will raise the confidence of the students because they will be able to share their knowledge. The teacher should also involve students by writing questions on the board and asking them to answer. This method kills anxiety because the material on the board will be fully analyzed.


The students are supposed to be involved in assembly activities. Students with anxiety are able to learn from others and thus they should be involved in group activities. Students with anxiety are also be involved in skill-building strategies.

Sensory Disability

It is a disability that involves the senses. About 95 percent of the information around human beings comes from our sight and our hearing. Sensory illness can have a negative effect on how an individual gathers information around them (Green and Mendelsohn 97).

Low Vision and Blindness

Blindness can be defined as loss of vision. Some people are partially blind and that means they have limited sight while others are completely blind meaning they cannot see. Blindness and low vision can occur as a result of accidents, conditions, and diseases. Some eye conditions are present at birth while other occurs in later life. Loss of vision can affect anyone but it is common to people over the age of 65. Some causes of blindness include injury, diabetes, albinism, tumors, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and cataracts. Some forms of blindness can develop as people age while others can be prevented and be reversed (Green and Mendelsohn 123).


Students with visual impairments have non-correctable vision troubles. Depending on the condition of the student the following terms are used in both regular and special education environment. The partially sighted people have a visual problem that affects the performance of a student even after correction is done. Low vision below a certain limit cannot be corrected and the student becomes moderate to low vision. Legally blind is when someone suffers severe low vision and is very close to blindness. Totally blind, a person cannot detect rays or beam of light and are said to suffer a total visual impairment.


The teacher should provide a copy of vision evaluation media and the essential guidelines on how a particular student is supposed to use his vision. The students should be allowed to adjust their position to which they will be most comfortable. The teacher should also let the student seat near the board in a central location together with others.


A teacher should involve a student with low vision in reading part of the test to ensure that the can see the entire document. They should also be involved in social activities like school drama clubs. They should also be involved in field work and in sports.

Hearing Loss

It is a situation in which an individual is partially or completely unable to hear. Damage to any internal part of the ear can result in hearing loss which can either be mild or intense. Congenital deafness is a situation whereby a person was born with a hearing loss and adventitious deafness is a situation where the hearing loss occurs after birth. Noise is the main cause of adventitious deafness. Other causes include damage to the cochlear nerve, age trauma, genetic disorders and other diseases (Baldwin 39).


Hearing loss is a common disability and is affecting children of all ages. Although symptoms might vary among people some feature indicates that they have a hearing difficulty. Most of the affected individuals delay development of speech and language. They also have difficulties in communication and pronunciation. Students with hearing loss tend to be very selective during listening.


Listening and learning at the same time can be very challenging especially for students with hearing loss. The teacher is supposed to consider people with hearing loss while teaching. Much of the things he should consider involves the senses that sharpen through close association with the learner. The leaner and family can offer adequate support to the teacher every day through positive criticism for development of the child.


The deaf student should also be given duties to carry out. It is important to involve hearing impaired students with activities like cleaning the board and opening the windows in the morning. The responsibility makes the child work independently and feels important and valued. It is vital to involve the deaf in storytelling, music, and working in groups.

Sensory Processing Disorder

It is a state that exists when multisensory integration is not adequately developed in order to give suitable responses to the demands of the surroundings. It causes difficulties in sending and receiving information from the senses like hearing, taste, smell, touch, and vision. Sensory information is like to affect one sense alone or it might affect more than one sense. A person suffering from this kind of disorder is like to have a low sense of stimuli like touch, sound, pain, smell, taste, and vision (Joshi 34).


Extreme responses to loud noise which can be noticed, also people with the sensory disorder are likely to hear the noise that others cannot hear. They fear climbing of falling. They sense danger even where there is no danger. They fall often because they lack balance. They avoid standing close to crowds and even fear game of tag.


A teacher is supposed to make sure the working and sitting station of sensory impaired students is fit for them. The tutor should also make sure that the child is free from distracting sources. They should ensure that the students are away from the doors and windows to avoid distractions. The teacher should make sure that there is a clear plan posted containing a lot of homework for transitions.


A student should be encouraged to join others in group discussion to help overcome their fears. They should also be trained to handle their fears through physical activities like sports.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

It refers to a neurological disorder that begins early in childhood and throughout the lifetime of an individual. It affects the interaction and behavior of a person. Boys are more likely to be affected by this disability (McDougle 65).


The symptoms of this disorder include difficulties in communication and social interaction, repetitive behaviors and interests, and sensitivity to sensory exposures.


The teacher should encourage the student with Autism spectrum disorder to seek peer support. This will lead to a positive interaction. The tutor should give instructions and directions to help facilitate comprehension in the classroom. The directions will help the student to achieve their set goals and objectives. The teacher should also have adequate knowledge about the disability. This will help them understand the behavior of their students. Educators should adopt routine activities such as music, art, and physical education. These activities will offer additional assistance to the students and therefore develop their physical abilities.


Special education has had both positive and negative effects on the participants. Regarding, the provision of the primary level of education, the children with disabilities have been included in the special classrooms. The inclusion has created a strong partnership between homes thereby making this reform successful. Students within the class environment normally provide important support for teachers administering their inclusion classrooms. A lot of teachers have learned that when they use non-disabled learners in their classes they are better able to work with special-needs students. Many times, instructors assign good scholars to work alone with their special-needs peers. This not only minimizes stress, but it also enables the teacher to spend more time working together with other troubled learners. Students also learn how to work in teams which have had a tremendous effect on their physical abilities. Teachers, in turn, have helped realize the accomplishment of student’s goals. The students have also played an important role in physical development. Despite, the challenges faced by special education, the specialist and education staff have held tight in the realization of its success.

The member views in this environment have drastically contributed to the comprehension and approval of the obstacle to the development of an open educational system that recognizes and promotes the full involvement of children with disabilities. Important schemes in addressing these critical issues are essential if the full potential of the new legislation and associated enterprise are to be realized. Capital is now required to build a school capacity, professional expertise, support services for parents and a wealthy differentiated program for the children(Data Research, Inc. (Rosemount, Minn.) 34).

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Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine.; Paralyzed Veterans of America. Neurogenic bowel management in adults with spinal cord injury. Washington, DC: Washington, DC (801 18th St., NW, Washington, 20006), 2006.

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Eĭdinova, Mariia Borisovna, Elena Nikolaevna Pravdina-Vinarskaia and Grace E Woods. Cerebral palsy in children and its treatment. New York: New York, Macmillan, 1963., 1963.

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