DNA and molecular biology

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Molecular biology is defined as the procedure in which the DNA creates the RNA, and the RNA creates proteins which are described as a sequence hypothesis. The doctrine classification involves three general shifts that take place in most cells showing that DNA to be imitated to DNA which is the DNA replication and the DNA is imitated into mRNA. Also, the three special shifts take place but under the specific condition the RNA replication. Then the DNA is formed by the use of RNA template and the proteins directly from the DNA template without the interference of mRNA. Lastly, the three unknown shift that never takes place, like the proteins being imitated to proteins. (Morange, 2009)
Central Dogma of Molecular It consists of transcription and translation. Transcription is the production of the RNA transcript of a segment of the DNA. The RNA polymerase synthesizes RNA. In the prokaryotic cell, the transcription and translation are hands in hand. In which the conversion begins by the mRNA being processed while in the eukaryotic cell transcription occurs in the nucleus and translation in the cytoplasm. In the prokaryotic cell since there is no nucleus to separate the process of transcription and translation whereas in the eukaryotic cell the transcription and translation are temporarily separated. Transcription is occurring in the nucleus to produce pre-mRNA that is synthesized to generate mature mRNA that exits in the nucleus and is translated to the cytoplasm.

Transcription

Transcription is the process in which the information in the DNA is replicated by the messenger RNA and the enzyme that facilitate this process are RNA polymerase and transcription factor. Transcription starts with RNA polymerase bind to the general transcription factor and a promoter DNA then they create a bubble of transcription that separates the two strands of the DNA helix. RNA polymerase adds the RNA nucleotides then later in the eukaryotic cell the RNA is processed further. lastly, the RNA may exist to the cytoplasm or remain in the nucleus. (Watson et., al, 2013)

Translation

Translation is where a mature mRNA gets to the ribosomes and gets translated. It occurs in the cytoplasm mostly in the eukaryotic cell where the processes are separated. In the ribosomes, they produce specific amino acids or polypeptide. (Mader et al., 2016). It has three phases the initiation process where the ribosomes assemble around the target mRNA to produce tRNA. Secondly, the elongation process of transferring tRNA to the next Condon and the last phase of termination to stop Condon and the ribosome releases the polypeptide. (Styer, 2002).

Conclusion

In conclusion, the central dogma molecular biology entails the process of the sequential genetic hypothesis of conversion of DNA to RNA to make proteins in which the mRNA is the messenger. It composes of two distinctive processes of the transcription and translation in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

References

Michel Morange. (2009). The Central Dogma of molecular biology, 236-247
Stryer L. (2002). Biochemistry. W.H Freeman and company, 826
Sylvia Mader, Michael Windelspecht. (2016). Biology. McGraw-Hill education, 249.
Watson JD, Baker TA, Bell SP, Gann AA, Levine M, Losick RM. (2013). The Molecular biology of the gene 7th Ed. Pearson

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