Drugs addiction

Freshman (College 1st year) ・Healthcare&Medicine ・APA ・4 Sources

Addiction is a brain condition that inhibits normal body functioning due to repeated exposure to a rewarding and reinforcing substance. According to Wise and Koob (2014), drug addiction is defined as a dependence that develops over time as a result of long-term drug use and exposure to achieve specific effects without regard for the side effects. Because medication often alters the mind, brain structure, and function, this addiction is classified as a brain disorder. In this essay, the question of whether drug addiction is involuntary or voluntary is discussed. Addictive behavior is defined as any behavior that evolves as a result of repeated exposure. Thus, drug addiction like any other form of addiction is just a habit that develops voluntarily. According to radical psychologists drug addiction is described as a choice.

Other scholars also agree in their research that drug addiction is just but a choice. According to Jupp and Dalley (2014), drug addiction does not cause any abnormalities to the brain. The changes are reversible since it only consists of a dependence that is induced by the drugs and sustained by continued drug use. Ivan Pavlov, a psychologist conducted several experiments with dogs with the objective of showing that all behavior is conditioned. He continued to demonstrate that a behavior can be reconditioned and later reinforced through purely physical means.

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Another major fact is that people change their behavior despite the brain having changed in response to the repeated use of the drug. Major religious teachings and philosophy have actually tried to argue that the issue of addiction is not inborn but it is an acquired characteristic. Biologists have further explained that inherited characteristics are not passed on the offsprings in any genetic process. This serves to explain that drug addiction is a choice despite the fact that some scientists have actually tried to prove that drug addiction is a sex linked trait that is passed on to the offspring through the Mendeleev theory (Everitt and Robbins, 2016).

The other major evidence about drug addiction being a mere choice and not a disorder at all is the fact that there is the lack of evidence to shows that drug addiction is compulsive. Actually the only evidence is the fact that drug addiction is voluntary. Skinner, another great psychologist is also responsible of examining behavior through use of rats and came to the conclusion that behavior is likely to become addictive if it is reinforced through reward and motivation.

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Ahmed et al. (2013), gives examples that are less threatening to explain addiction as a choice rather than a disease or a consequence. Human beings get addicted to so many things including their jobs, passions, sporting activities and other hobbies. People who do well in talents such as singing or other gaming activities have been known to do so through numerous practices that are the same case for addicts. These statements clearly explain that that drug addiction is as voluntary as any other sector that a human being may train to get expert knowledge in.

In conclusion, people should understand that drug addiction is a choice, and one can decide not to be addicted to drugs. The brain has its own mechanisms of adjusting physically to any situation or conflict, which does not necessitate use of too much drug or its dependence. It is thus necessary to learn to do without drugs.

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Ahmed, S. H., Lenoir, M., & Guillem, K. (2013). Neurobioloay of addiction versus drug use driven by lack of choice.Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(4), 581-587.

Everitt, B. J., & Robbins, T. W. (2016). Drug addiction: updating actions to habits to compulsions ten years on. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 23-50.

Jupp, B., & Dalley, J. W. (2014). Behavioral endophenotypes of drug addiction: etiological insights from neuroimaging studies.Neuropharmacology,76, 487-497.

Wise, R. A., & Koob, G. F. (2014). The development and maintenance of drug addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology,39(2), 254-262.

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