Exercise Prescription

Junior (College 3rd year) ・Healthcare&Medicine ・APA ・10 Sources

Exercise has been found to be essential in reducing many health problems. People of all ages and sexes require workout for their health benefits. A male client from assessment had a weight of 72 kg with an equal height of 179cm. Analyzing the anthropometric measurements the client had a BMI of 22.5 kg/m2. The BMI of the client reflects on his health status which indicates he has no risk factor. The client participates in athletes. There is no significance between BMI and body fatness. Examining body components helps in determining physical fitness and health of a person. For athletes who have healthy BMI indicates less body fat due to increased muscular strengths (Ortansa, 2006). The client body fat percentage was fifteen percent. Body fat varies with age and sex for the general population but for athletes in depends on the training level, type of sports activities and their energy intakes. According to Jeukendrup and Gleeson, an athlete body fat percentage should range from five to eleven percent for a male. Therefore the client had a slightly higher body fat mass.

BMI of a person determines whether they are healthy, underweight, overweight or obese. Athletes who are overweight may not be an issue if they have less fat tissue and lean body mass. Therefore they may not be exposed to high blood lipids and cholesterol. In athletic, healthy body weight and low-fat percentage are important. Physical activity also relates to age. Many types of research evidence demonstrate that physical activity reduces with age and people of age group 20-29 are considered to be active and fit for High-intensity exercises. Overweight and obesity which are determined by BMI have become a global health problem which results due to sedentary lifestyles. Approximately 1.9 million deaths results due to physical inactivity. Obesity and overweight attribute to 2.6 million deaths every year. The majority of the global population, nearly sixty percent do not qualify for the half an hour recommended physical exercise (WHO, 2009). The number of obese people is predicted to increase by 2050 to more than seven hundred million.


The primary client goals were to achieve healthy body weight, enhance sprint speed and agility. He also had the aim of improving the weekly structure and increased fitness. Enhanced physical fitness reduces the risk of health problems such as overweight.

Fitness assessment

The increase in physical fitness also helps the body of a person to adapt to effective exercise routines that may result in bleeding, weak joints, and muscles (Kissarnoti, 2015). Increasing speed and agility enhances dynamic power movements, efficient brain cognition, spatial body awareness, and time for force reaction. Charlebois states that to avoid injuries that may result from bench pull max one needs to test 3RM optimum over their 1RM (Charlebois, 2005). He further states that for men of age group 20-29 should have a bench press weight equivalent to their weight, as for the client he needs to have a seat pull weight of 72kg. The client did bench press, deadlift, and squats so as to achieve optimal healthy weight and fitness. The client started bench press by sixty-five kilograms.

Short run results to Increase in sprint speed and agility. This reduced race periods requires a person to run as fast as possible in a forth and back manner between parallel lines. The client reduces his speed from thirty minutes to four seconds which helped him to achieve his aim of enhancing sprint speed and agility. Bench press method is important in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and increases upper body strength. For a male with 72kg, it is recommended to start by bench press of 95kg so as to achieve fitness. Deadlift and squats are essential in attaining the maximum hormonal response. In men, the deadlift and squats are important in reproduction function. Squats promote the growth of testosterone hormones in men by directly connecting to skeletal muscles that induce protein synthesis (Zatsiorsky, 2006). The deadlifts and squat max help in improving general bone growth and joint stabilization. Client 1-RM was 80kg. Male of the clients’ age should begin by lifting a weight of 125kg. These standards are significant for athletes to increase performance.

Exercise prescription

The client used muscular strength training exercises such as bench push, squats, beep test, speed and agility, and deadlift. The bench press is essential for the muscular strengthening of upper body parts such as shoulder, chest and arms. This daily physical activity is mostly done by athletes in flat location often supported by the flat bench. This exercise involves the increase in elbows, adduction in humeral and thoracic scapular capture. Pectoralis action affects the humeral adduction with an increase in anterior deltoid and biceps branching. Kinematic constriction results in triceps branching which contribute directly to the humeral deductions (Arandjelovic´, 2012). Squats are the most commonly used resistance intensity activity by athletes. Squats have biological, mechanical and neurotransimission significance to the daily training athletes. It is important for overall muscle strengthening and training in several sports especially sports that require more weight and power. This exercise involves flexion in the knee and synergistic hip in a required depth, followed by an increase in knee and hip (Van de Tillar et al., 2013). Squats are majorly for lower body fitness, balance, and stabilization. Location of the bar, knee orientation on planes and stance width results in successive squats.

The most efficient exercise for athletes, powerlifters, weightlifters, and bodybuilders is the deadlift that leads to different benefits. For athletes, the deadlift is important in overall muscle strengthening whereas for bodybuilders it results in muscles hypertrophy. This exercise also involves knee and hip expansions. Activities of glutes, biceps, semi-tendons and muscles semi-membranes lead to increased hip-bone (Hales et al., 2009). Intermedius, rectus femoral, vastus muscles, and medialis contribute to knee extension. Knee and hips expansions result to the static involment of inter-spinal and multifidus and complications of spinal erection (Hales et al., 2009) . Deadlift differs from squats in that there is a relationship in the extension of knee and hip with biomechanical. Flexion of Knee angles is always smaller in deadlifts. The deadlift also differs from the two exercises as it does not require any object. Beginners need to start deadlifts at 156kg.

Muscular strength calculations

1-RM = (weight lifted)/ [1.0278 – (repetitions x 0.0278)] Calculation of a seat pull (approximately 4reps according to WHO recommendation) 65= (weight lifted)/[1.0278-(4×0.0278)]= 59.6kg The client lifted 59.6k9 for 4repetition to have a 1-RM of 65kg Calculation of deadlifts 90= (weight lifted)/[1.0278-(4×0.0278)]=82.4kg The client deadlifted a weight of 82.4kg for 4 repetitions a week to achieve 1-RM of 90kg Calculation of squats 80= (weight lifted)/[1.0278-(4×0.0278)]=73.3 The client lifted 73.3kg for 4 repetitions a week so as to achieve 1-RM of 80kg Beep test for athletes is 15-16 for males and beep test of 11-13 for males is considered to be very good. Therefore the beep test for the client was good. Strength training requires safety considerations to avoid injuries. The muscles need to relax for approximately forty-eight hours to recover.

Warming up and cooling down for 5-10minutes is considered safe for all the strength trainings. When doing bench press on should focus on the bench and correct and smooth body alignment (Hales et al., 2009). Many studies suggest that starting with low weight and increasing it gradually so as to prevent injuries. Beep test safety concerns paying attention to breaths throughout the exercise. Exhalation results in safe strength exercise. Gradual weight increase results in muscle challenge. Muscle strengthening also requires lifting of weights that concur with personal weight. The client ensured safety during his muscle strengthening as started the lifts by light weights. WHO has put in place several recommendations for gaining quality weight and enhance fitness. However for the case of the client, he needs to have a minimum seventy five minutes of vigorous activities throughout the week or a minimum two hours of moderate exercise. He should have duration of ten minutes of practice each day.

For maximum benefits he needs to double up the periods of performance. He should also do two muscle strengthening activities such as bench push, deadlifts and squats for not less two days a week. Several studies have demonstrated that physical inactivity is related to overweight and obesity. Ahmadized study indicates that high intensity training had significance impact on muscular strengthening. The study was conducted in eight weeks which involved three days of training a week. He used randomized control method. After 8 weeks there was a decrease in fat percentage of those involved in the study. There was no significant correlation between the exercise and BMI. The participants used bench press and leg pull where there was a significant increase in all groups in training (Ahmadized et al., 2014). Therefore short-term durations of physical training are efficient for enhancing fitness. Encouraging and promoting the need for physical exercise is important in societies as it is a public health measure.

World Health Organization has come up with strategies which help in reducing the health risk factors and promote physical activities. Providing suitable and efficient environment for exercises such as walking and cycling helps promote physical activities among people of all ages. Improving sports, leisure and recreational facilities such as sports field will help promote participation of people in physical exercises. Safety of the exercise places increases number of people participating in exercise and therefore promoting physical activity participation. Introducing physical activity education in schools and other institutions will also accelerate undertaking of physical exercises. Introduction of transport rules and regulation and means of travelling that promotes physical activities in institutions and work places (WHO, 2015). The strategies to promote physical activities are convenient and affordable to implement, thus they can be carried out at any faculty (WHO, 2002). These interventions can be implemented in education institutions, communities and work places. Optimal physical activity is important for a person’s good health. Most of health complications results from inadequate or lack of physical activity.

Overweight and obesity is one of the biggest contributors to death globally. Physical activities not only reduce the health problems, but, also contribute to reduction of mortality rate. There are several aerobic exercises that are essential for reducing the health risk factors. Bench press, squats, deadlift and sprint are some of the essential physical activities for men. However there are some other exercises such walking, cycling, playing football, hockey games, athletic and more. Physical activities results in strong muscles and good cognition. Lack of physical activity in men also results in reduced reproductive function. Regular exercise helps in growth hormone and growth of testosterone in men. Therefore for healthy weight gain one needs to participate in more vigorous activities as long as they do not have any health risk factors or are disabled. They need to abide by the recommendations set for vigorous activities.


Allen K., Morey M. C. (2015). Physical activity and adherence-springer. Retrieved from http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9781441958655-c1.pdf

Arandjelovic´ O.(2012). Common variants of the resistance mechanism in the Smith machine: analysis of mechanical loading characteristics and application to strength-oriented and hypertrophy-oriented training. Journal of Strength Conditioning Res, 26(2):350–63

Charlebois D., (2005).The Big Three - Squat, Deadlift, Bench. Retrieved from https://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/teen-derek2.htm

Hales M E, Johnson B F, Johnson J T. (2009).Kinematic analysis of the powerlifting style squat and the conventional deadlift during competition: is there a cross-over effect between lifts? Journal of Strength Cond Res, 23(9):2574–80.

Kissarnoti. O. (2015). What’s Missing From Your Workout Routine. Retrieved from http://www.cheatsheet.com/health-fitness/whats-missing-from-your-workout-routine.html/?a=viewall

Van den Tillaar R, Ettema G. (2013).A comparison of muscle activity in concentric and counter movement maximum bench press. Journal of Human Kinet, 38:63–71.

WHO (2002). Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/strategy/eb11344/strategy_english_web.pdf

WHO (2009). Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44399/1/9789241599979_eng.pdf

WHO (2015). Physical activity strategy for the WHO European Region 2016–2025. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/282961/65wd09e_PhysicalActivityStrategy_150474.pdf

Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Kraemer, W. J. (2006). Science and practice of strength training. 2nd edition Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

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