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Global Terrorism

Global Terrorism

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Abstract

Terrorists use different methods to achieve their objectives. The major strategies that they employ include: attrition, spoiling, provocation, intimidation, and outbidding. Indeed, all the plans used are aimed at gaining control of a targeted group of people or region. However, an analysis of the trends in terrorist activities over the years reveal that a majority of extremist groups prefer to use intimidation. They often use intimidation in areas where it is easier to instill fear and panic among the population. Notably, every strategy is applicable in some particular conditions and they may backfire in other circumstances. In as much as intimidation is one of the methods that largely used because of its effectiveness, it also has significant drawbacks. For instance, the strategy may fail because it is done openly, thus, making it easier for security agents to identify the terrorists. Also, it involves the use of brutal force to win over followers. One of the terrorist groups that is known for using this strategy is Boko haram. The group exists in Northeastern Nigeria and has caused a lot of terror among the residents of that region. The militants have used the intimidation strategy through abduction of women and girls as well as mass-murder; thus, causing confusion, fear and discord among the residents. The paper intends to discuss the phenomenon of intimidation as a strategy used by Boko Haram and other terrorist groups to achieve their objective.

Key words: terrorism, intimidation, strategy

Global Terrorism

            Terrorism is arguably one of the phenomena that a majority of countries have had to contend with for last many decades. Given that the terrorist organizations have persisted in causing a significant amount of loses and destruction, it is vital to understand their operational structures and establish ways of countering their activities. To achieve effective counter-terrorism measures, it is essential to understand the strategies that the terrorists use to carry out their activities. The paper seeks to explore intimidation as one of the primary strategies that terrorists use to achieve their objective. Also, it focusses on Boko Haram Jihadist group in Northern Nigeria, which has used this plan in the past to spread terror. An analysis of the terror activities since the 1950s to date indicate that Boko Haram has been using intimidation as a strategy to conduct terrorist activities while cooperating with other terror groups such as the Al-Qaida, thus posing a threat to the security of the United States because of the effectiveness of the approach.

Terrorism entails the use deliberate and random methods to perpetrate violence with the sole aim of instilling fear or terror in people. The terrorists' ultimate intention is to achieve ideological, political and religious supremacy. Terrorism has existed since the 18th century. It has been known as the unconventional war because the people behind it use unconventional means to wage war against their target groups. Arguably, the war against groups that use such strategies to perpetuate terror can only be won if there is enough intelligence gathering. Besides, there is a need for serious security preparation to respond to the intelligence gathered regarding any impending attack or group that plans to cause any kind of discord in the community (Tumlin, 2004).

Boko Haram is hell bent on pushing a particular ideological and political agenda. Boko Haram are Hausa words which translate to "Western education is forbidden". Although the proponents of the group have tried very hard to conceal that meaning and at the same time promote it to mean that group is spreading the teachings of their prophet (Alozieuwa, 2012). Nonetheless, it is one of the many terrorist groups that have used intimidation to instill fear and spread terror amongst their target groups.

The History of Intimidation as a Terrorist Strategy

As mentioned before, terrorists often use intimidation to instill injury or harm on a targeted group. Just like the advent of terrorism, the use of this strategy dates back to the late 1790s during the French Revolution. History has it that sub-national entities and non-state entities instilled fear on individuals in a bid to establish order during the transition of the anarchical system that allegedly marred with turmoil and uprisings. The entities are also reported to have used intimidation to counter the government's attempt to counter revolutionary movements against the regime. Afterward, terrorist groups that have sprung up in different parts of the world over the years have sort to use the strategy because of its effectiveness. Many renowned terrorist groups such as the Al-Qaida have used intimidation over the years up to date to accomplish their mission. An indication of the same is the war and terror activities on innocent individuals that are associated with the terrorist groups. (Borgeson & Valeri, 2009) Also, an analysis of the trends in terrorist activities shows that a majority of fanatics use intimidation to achieve their goal. For instance, Boko Haram resorted to kidnapping young girls to instill fear and get the attention of the Nigerian government and locals.

Why it is a Terrorist Strategy

Terrorist strategy is a master plan that a group lays out with the intention of achieving an end result in an unlawful way. It entails policies that are meant to guide an operation. Security experts list intimidation as one of the strategies that individuals use to claim authority over or convince their target population that they are in control. Research has it that militia groups use intimidation with the sole aim of convincing the target population that they are a formidable group, strong enough to a point that they can inflict severe punishment on everyone who disobeys or goes against them  (Bagaji, Etila, & Ogbadu,2012). They also strive to prove to the target population that they have they are strong enough to achieve their desires through whatever means that they deem necessary. Therefore, once they have intimidated individuals to this level, they are assured that latter will respond and act as they wish. According to Mueller, one of the ways that terrorists get recognized as a threat is by daringly acting in an unlawful way with the purpose of showing both the authority and the people that their lives are at their mercy (2006). It implies that that terrorists rely on the fear that they instill in individuals to get recognition by the relevant authorities and push their agenda. As such, one may argue that in deed intimidation is a strategy that terrorists use to achieve their purpose or target mission.

As stated earlier, the main terrorist group to be considered is the Boko Haram Jihadist group in Northern Nigeria. However, it is worth noting that other major terrorist organizations such as Al Qa'ida, Al Shahab, and Islamic Jihad Union among others also use coercion and brutal force. For example, historical records show that Al-Qaeda's method of conducting terror has always entailed suicide bombings, kidnapping, and mass murder. In their view, Bagaji, Etila, & Ogbadu assert that the primary reason for such actions is to instill fear and harm their target population and in the process coerce the government or relevant authorities to adhere to their demands (2012). Also, ISIL, which is one of the most recently formed terror group, have also adopted intimidation as a strategy for achieving their intended mission. For example, they kill individuals who are not loyal to their course with the intention of making others fearful and abide by their ideologies or face the same consequences. Boko Haram uses the strategy by causing a lot of harm and distraction in that part of Nigeria. There are so many speculations and theories that try to explain the genesis of the lethal organization but all of them concur on one aspect. That it is an organization of individuals with selfish interests hiding behind religion to achieve their goal. The group hit international media when they attacked a town in Nigeria known as Chibok and abducted 300 children at night. Aghedo & Osumah report that Boko Haram intimidated the government and citizens by threatening to carry out heinous acts such as rape, forced marriage and forceful conversion of the abductees to their religion and ideological beliefs (2012).

When the Strategy is Effective

            Intimidation as a strategy used by terrorists to achieve their mission has proven to be effective because of the following reasons. First, it enables the organization to gain massive control socially for an entire population. For example, in situations where the government is opposed to changes that the extremist groups are proposing, the latter can take advantage of the circumstances and use force, threats, and intimidation to enforce the policies or changes directly on the people. They ensure that they use violence and make the region under their control. Also, Borgeson, & Valeri note that the extremists have used intimidation strategy and violence to achieve their goals as in the instance when anti-abortion crusaders vandalized clinics to bar the pro-abortion groups from carrying out abortion (2009).  In the 1960s, a group of racists in the United States carried arson attacks in the churches with the intention of stopping the Americans of African descent from gaining the international security they had been advocating for (Borgeson, & Valeri, 2009).

The Boko Haram -carefully and intelligent tactics- have also been using intimidation methods to coerce the government into allowing them to take control of the northern side of Nigeria. They have been doing this by imposing their system of education that is an antipathy of Western form of education. To prove their prowess, they resorted to abducting the Chibok girls and held them for ransom until their demands are met. They also carried other forms of violence to the community around that left many people dead and others maimed. Notably, those actions were intended for sending a message to the government official that they are a force to reckon with and that they deserve to be heard.

In many occasions, terrorist groups resort to sending scary messages that are accompanied by demands which cannot easily be met. In the event that their target groups are not cooperative and do not give in to their demands, they resort to kidnappings. What follows thereafter is brutal torture of the abductees with the aim of pushing for the negotiations for their demands to be met. It took quite a long period before the release of the girls was secured. That illustrates the use of intimidation and threats from the part of the terrorist group.

Flaws of the Strategy

            Despite the effectiveness of the intimidation as used by terrorist groups as a strategic method for attaining their goal, it has various flaws that may prove its use futile. For instance, whenever the terrorist plan to instill fear among the population, chances are that the targeted group do not cower but instead stand up against them.  Mueller notes that some people may get suspicious about the overall or hidden intention when someone resorts to threatening them as opposed to persuading their minds and hearts to embrace their cause (2006). Notably, individuals' knowledge of the intended goal has marked a pattern of failure in the terror activities perpetrated by Boko Haram and other terrorists groups that have employed intimidation as a strategic method for conducting their activities.

Another reason why intimidation may not work for a terrorist organization is that it can backfire and the end result is that the militia group may not gain influence on as many people as it desires. When a people feel harassed to accept certain doctrines or way of life, they may end up rebelling. The occurrence of such rebellions and uprising within the extremist groups can expose them to security organs of the country. In the event that there are wrangles within the groups, security agents can easily infiltration their operations and prosecute them for their illegal activities.

Additionally, intimidation strategy may not work if the militia group intends to infiltrate the population through religious organizations as is the common but not entirely always the trend (Juergensmeyer, 2006). Arguably, it is appropriate for one to be humble and have a good public relation whenever one intends to introduce new doctrines that may or may not resonate well with a particular group of people. That is, regardless of whether or not the ideologies are acceptable to the targeted individuals. Boko Haram is much aware of this and so if they used resort to instilling fear in individuals at their places of worship, then they would actually end up being favored by fewer people than they are at the moment. Therefore, using force and brutality to pass a message across may not necessarily work in all circumstances.

Boko Haram may have managed to arm-twist the government and other opinion leaders into falling prey of its terrorist schemes. However, it is not a strategy they can employ when making their impact felt among the ordinary men and women on the streets or in the villages. For such big authorities or organizations, it may succeed if one holds them to ransom and they have something crucial on their side that can be used to push for a demand (Chothia, 2012). However, another major drawback for this strategy is that the people whom they intend to take control over may revolt against then and overpower them given the material and machinery support from the government. 

Other than intimidation, the use of persuasion as a strategic method for carrying out terrorist activities has its own flaws as outlined below. First, endeavoring to persuade everyone to view things from how you look at them may not yield any significant result because it requires a lot of patience and must be done in a careful way not to give your target group not detect any potential of malice and deceit. Once the painstaking exercise has taken place, is when an individual can be convinced to a join a group such as Boo Haram.

Another disadvantage of the strategy is that the message may be rendered redundant by the targeted population and as a result, the extremist organization loses its influence and favor of the people. Being polite and diplomatic for this rough and power-hungry organization may prove futile especially if the population is hard to be persuaded (Juergensmeyer, 2006). For such communities, a little force is what is required to get them to follow certain ideologies.

Finally, on matters to do with disadvantages of persuasion, it requires a high level of discreet measures. Since terrorism is a covert mission, coupled with persuasion as a strategy, it will be a very a difficult task to push the agenda to fruition. A significant number of people in the society do not have the ability to be discreet. Therefore, in the act of convincing more people to become their followers and at the same time maintain some degree of secrecy, it may be easier to betray one another. When there is a split in the group and it happens that they turn on each other, the next course of action would be betrayal and revealing of one another's secrets to the enemy. As such, the strategy of persuasion can be ineffective if individuals do not uphold secrets that may jeopardize the activities of the terrorist groups.

Infrastructure that Supports Use of the Strategy

Infrastructure is the basic utilities, conditions or organizational structures that facilitate the operation of an activity. Given that terrorism is an activity, infrastructure, in this case, refers to the conditions and prevailing factors that affect the perpetration of the act. There are many causes that are believed to lead to the insurgency of terrorist groups such as Boko Haram. One of the factors the existence of such fanatics is an unstable socio-political environment. Often times, a population may feel that they have been denied or historically marginalized of a very crucial resource or right that they duly deserve. To solve the issue, such people may resort to using other forms of violent means to make their voices heard and to pass their message to the relevant authorities. Doing that persistently will definitely earn them recognition and the target group will know that the attackers are sending a signal that they want something.

Also, one may argue that religious doctrines and affiliations are an infrastructure that supports the use of intimidation as a strategy for terrorism. Some individuals hold a belief that terrorism is a byproduct of conflict of interests. Although there is no explicit evidence to back the assertions that faith is the genesis of terrorism, it has been observed that many organizations that are led by militia groups hide under various religious beliefs and execute their plans in an extreme way. The terrorists take advantage of the controversial phrases in the faith-based doctrines to drive a selfish agenda. For instance, security experts note that most Islamic terrorists misinterpreted doctrines and directions in the Quran- Islam's Holy book- to perpetrate terror in the name of serving God (Juergensmeyer, 2006). It is such confusion that ensues that makes innocent individuals who affiliate with various beliefs to fall prey of the wrong interpretations of the doctrines by the terrorist.

Another reason that might have enabled Boko Haram and other terrorists groups to spread their ideologies and conduct terror activities using intimidation is illiteracy. Alozieuwa, comments that those who do not have education are more gullible to do a crime because their ability to analyze information critically is quite low (2012). Since terrorism is defined by misinformation and unreasonable ideological beliefs, uneducated people may not be able to separate the truths and the lies. Also, the target group may lack the necessary knowledge or adequate intelligence to identify the intentions of the terrorist groups, thus enabling them to carry on with their activities swiftly.

Another infrastructure that supports the use of the strategy is injustice. Historically, injustice hurts and offends people especially if it is perceived that those in authority do not show any attempt to provide justice or any assurance of assisting the victims (Chothia, F. (2012). The victims of the injustice, therefore, resort to protests and even violence in order to rise up against the oppression or injustice. Although it is very difficult to have a perfect justice system that would keep everyone satisfied and happy, it should be noted that deeply rooted injustice can cause the emergence of terrorism.

Terrorism is a costly undertaking whose aftermath leaves the society in chaos and devastation. The impacts come in different forms. From economic, social to political. For example, Nigeria has suffered economic recession due to the terrorist activities that Boko Haram has perpetrated in the country. First of all, individuals lose their lives, businesses are destroyed, infrastructure and property are vandalized and the government invests a lot of money and resource to manage the menace at the expense of other important aspects of nation building and development.

Another huge loss is the disruption of learning activities in the affected areas. For example, in Northern Nigeria where the group had dominated, they opposed the current system of Western education and only advocated and tried to push for qur'anic education. Bagaji, Etila, & Ogbadu, (2012) record that the group has been carrying out constant campaign against western civilization and using force and brutality to ensure that locals embrace Islamic laws. The act is not only primitive but retards the development of a people and the country. Similarly, such an environment would put off prospective investors who wanted to establish businesses in that area. The people who still suffer most are the locals because when an industry is built in that particular region, it will not only benefit the owners by earning profits but will also benefit the government through taxes and the locals by creating jobs.

Additionally, there will be a sharp loss in the foreign direct investment (FDI) in a country with an increase in instability. For a case of Nigeria, it is estimated that just a single unit if the FDI boosts the GDP of the country by 16 units. Nigeria being highly dependent on oil and gas, it means that the economy highly relies on the FDI which should not be destroyed because of Boko Haram. Again, there has been massive emigration from northern Nigeria because of fear of the non-indigenous inhabitants being the most affected. When the north gets abandoned, the economic prospects of the region to plummet (Sandler & Enders, 2004).

The profitability of business ventures goes down because there will not be enough customers to buy products from the stores and shelves. Also, financial institutions have been forced to close down because of the decrease in population that the businesses rely on. Furthermore, there was not a law or insurance policy that covered business or individuals against deadly terrorist attacks. If such safeguards were available, not many businesses and banking industries would have closed down. Until the insurance firms and the government find a way of cushioning people against such eventualities in northern Nigeria, the region would still remain deserted if terror attacks will not stop.

Similarly, there is an equally serious social impact with respect to activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria. Since the terror acts violate law and order in the society, it interferes with the socio-economic and political set up of the society. The acts of kidnappings like it happened to the Chibok girls, murder, mutilation, torture and extortion leads to mayhem in the society that they may not even know what to do next. It does not stop at incertitude but also instills fear, panic and uncertain grips the society that they end up suffering depression and despair. Unfortunately, the attacks are often random, and it's the women and children who bear the brunt of the terror acts (Sibeudu et al., 2017).

Another consequence of terrorism is political impacts. The menace complicates global politics. For example, when a terrorist attack is executed in another country, and it is suspected to have been caused by a terror group which is from a different or neighboring country, it has the potential of spoiling the diplomatic ties between those two countries and even their allies. It is, therefore, something which should be fought and stopped at all costs. Again, the presence of a terror group in the country or given region can easily destabilize the government especially if the militia group has political connections and support (Mueller, 2006). Sooner, they may end up toppling the government through a coup or illegitimate takeover of power.

Solutions to terrorism

            The first solution to such a problems that are caused by fanatic groups as Boko Haram is investing significantly in mass education. Doing this would enable people to understand and appreciate the differences in culture, beliefs, religion and the diverse behavior of people. The government also should endeavor to guarantee freedom and equity to all religions and tribes without discrimination. That would help in creating an atmosphere of fairness and justice which will prevent people from harboring hard feelings against those in authorities.

            Secondly, the government should establish the root cause of terrorism. Eliminating members of the militia group alone would not be sufficient to alleviate the problem because terrorism is not a conventional war that can easily be fought by the army (Sandler & Enders, 2004).  The first thing that the authorities should establish is the source of funding of the terror organization because the group thrives on illegal trade and money that is earned unlawfully. Once the origin of their finances has been discovered and cut off, they will not be able to procure fire arms and other lethal weapons as well as recruit more people into the organization.

            Finally, the spread of terrorism has also led to several nations tightening their immigration laws. That is done to minimize the entry of immigrants to their countries because every nation at the moment is approaching foreigners who enter their territories with caution. An example is the adoption of stricter security policies by the United States after the September 9/11attack. The same strategy should be adopted by Nigeria and other countries which intend to curb the spread of terrorism (Tumlin, 2004).

Conclusion

            The five strategic methods that terrorist groups use to achieve their objectives include intimidation, attrition, outbidding, provocation and spoiling. Intimidation stands out as the strategy that most terrorists have used since the 1950s to date. One may argue that terrorists use the strategy of coercing the population because it is an effective way of getting recognition as a formidable threat. One of the terrorist groups that have used this strategy is the Boko Haram in Nigeria. The effectiveness of using intimidation as strategy lies on the terrorist groups' ability to coerce the authorities into meeting their ultimatums. Also, terrorists that have used this strategy have gained significant recognition.

Despite its effectiveness, the use of intimidation as a strategic method for carrying out terror has its drawbacks including uprising by the targeted population who might be aware of their ultimate intention and inability to gain the favor of as many people as they may desire. Some of the infrastructures that support the use of the strategy include; illiteracy, unstable socio-political environment, and religion. Indeed terrorism is an undesirable act that causes devastation and instability of a targeted population. As such, it is important to observe the strategies that terrorism use and respond accordingly using adequate intelligence. That being said, a majority of terrorist groups use intimidation as a strategy for achieving their objectives.

Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Aghedo, I., & Osumah, O. (2012). The Boko Haram uprising: how should Nigeriarespond? Third World Quarterly, 33(5), 853-869.The article is particular on the interventions that the government needs to put in place. The authors have outlined how interventions that have been put in place by the US government to assist the government of Nigeria tackle the threats that terrorism imposed by the deadly group Boko Haram has on the people and state as well as the interests of the USA.

Alozieuwa, S. H. (2012). Contending theories on Nigeria’s security challenge in the era of Boko Haram insurgency.Peace and Conflict Review,7(1), 1-8.The author of the article talks about the theories that have been advanced that explain the genesis of the Boko Haram group. There are so many speculations and explanation right and forth to find out what triggered the insurgence of the deadly group. The author identifies some of the reasons such as human and socio-economic factors, political factors, there is also the conspiracy theory and Islamic theocratic state theory.

Furthermore, the author has also given a detailed explanation of the challenges the Nigerian security undergoes in its daily operation to combat terrorism and maintain security. From the article, it is quite clear that the terrorism has been a tough task for the both the government and the residents who want peace and harmony to prevail. With all the support, the United States government has provided, the challenge still remains and the author paints a positive picture that it seems to be helping decimate the Boko Haram group.

Bagaji, A. S. Y., Etila, M. S., & Ogbadu, E. E. (2012). Boko Haram and the Recurring Bomb Attacks in Nigeria: Attempt to Impose Religious Ideology through Terrorism? /Boko Haram Et Les Attentats A La Bombe Au Nigeria: Tenter D'imposer Les Ideologies Religieuse A Travers Le Terrorisme? Cross-Cultural Communication, 8(1), 33.

The authors tried to explain the strategies and tactics that Boko Haram have used to penetrate the minds of the people and indoctrinate them with false religious ideologies. With the youth being the target, the terrorists have taken advantage of their vulnerability and poverty by enticing them with material things and deceptive doctrines.

Borgeson, K., & Valeri, R. (Eds.). (2009). Terrorism in America. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

The authors in the book Terrorism in America have given a historic context of how the vice has impacted America. The attacks that have taken place and the response that the government of the United States has put in place to mitigate the attacks and the encroachment of the terror groups into the territory of the United States.

The authors have also sought to bring to the attention of the readers the philosophy behind the formation of terrorists groups Vis a Vis the philosophical underpinnings of religious organizations. All the terrorists’ groupings are founded on certain ideological and philosophical.

Chothia, F. (2012). Who are Nigeria’s Boko Haram Islamists. BBC News, 11.

The author explores in details the identity and origin of the Islamic group of Boko Haram. He has also endeavored to explain the source of their funding and the political and socio-economic environment in which they operate. The author raised pertinent issues on how and why the terrorist group keeps thriving despite the measures and efforts aimed at crippling the activities of the group. It was clear that to defeat terror, the government and all the stakeholders involved in fighting it should cut the sources of funding to the group. That would mean finding out their sources of finance by monitoring cash flows in and out of the country.

Secondary sources

Juergensmeyer, M. (2006). Religion as a Cause of Terrorism. The roots of terrorism, 133-144.

In his view, Juergensmeyer claims that a majority of individuals have wrongfully laid claim of serving the purpose of religion by spreading terror amongst those who do not believe in a particular faith. In the article, he points out that every time an individual or terrorist group carries out an attack, individuals are left wondering one they have to kill innocent lives and destroy property to make a point. The author makes a detailed investigation into the various aspects of religion that are perceived to be the major determinants of terror attacks. By doing so, he draws the relationship between terrorism and religion. This article is essential for as it informs the paper about religion as one of the factors that contribute to or rather influence the prevalence of terrorism around the world. Given that religion has been at the center stage of most terrorist activities, the information from this article is critical to the explanation of religion as the basis upon which individuals spread terror.

The weakness of the article is that it relies too much on the aspect of religion and overlooks other important aspects such as social-political injustices as important factors that contribute to terrorism.

Maiangwa, B., & Agbiboa, D. (2014). Why Boko Haram kidnaps women and young girls in north-eastern Nigeria.conflict trends, 2014(3), 51-56.

The authors of the book give a detailed explanation of the kidnappings that Boko Haram executed on the Chibok girls. The conflict and the real threat that the militia group had become metamorphized itself into. The authors also sought to explain the emotional harm that the attack had on the parents, friends, and relatives of the girls that were kidnapped by the Boko Haram terrorists.

The article further went to illustrate the efforts that both the government and the international community put to find out where the Boko Haram took the girls. Moreover, the militia group started negotiating with the government using the girls as a ransom. They had a potent tool to in the lives of the girls to hold the government toransom. Failure to grant them what they asked for, would have led to the militia group killing the girls.

Mueller, J. E. (2006). Overblown: How politicians and the terrorism industry inflate national security threats, and why we believe them. Simon and Schuster.

The author of the book strives to put into the perspective the harm that networks of terrorism have on matters national security. He explicitly articulates that national security is easily compromised whenever certain forms of instability such as terrorism thrive. The inflow of illegal money into the country in most cases has the potential of causing instability. The author also looked at the possibility of the militia group doing legit business or money laundering with the illegal money obtained from international organizations that are hell-bent on seeing discord and instability in Nigeria. When the money is put into the legitimate business, it earns them descent profits, and then they use such proceeds to buy loyalty and get more followers. In some instances, the illegal proceeds could even be used to compromise government officials especially the security personnel by bribery. Once they do this, they get access to areas that were at first restricted to them and they cause harm and destruction.

Sandler, T., & Enders, W. (2004). An economic perspective on transnational terrorism.European Journal of Political Economy, 20(2), 301-316.

Sander and Enders delved into the effect the menace of terrorism has had in the United States and European Union with Boko Haram not an exception. The United States being a reliable ally and a strong fighter in the war against terrorism in any part of the world, it always feels threatened whenever the vice is thriving anywhere in the world.

The two authors are intent on informing the readers of the importance the European Union and the United States are to the rest of the world. Many investors want to start their companies in such rich and economically stable countries. It’s only by doing this that they get the returns on their investments fast. Therefore, when the stability of the United States gets threatened by terrorism or any other thing, the government moves in very fast to arrest the situation before it gets out of hand. Doing this will preserve the economic interests and gains of the people of the United States.

Sibeudu, F. T., Uzochukwu, B. S., & Onwujekwe, O. E. (2017). Investigating socio-economic inequity in access to and expenditures on routine immunization services in Anambra state.BMC research notes, 10(1), 78.

The authors are exploring the socio-economic background of the inhabitants of North Eastern Nigeria where Boko Haram has taken hostage. The author sought to find out the correlation between the rise of terrorism in that region and the standard of living of the people. That is whether poverty has something to do with it. It is also understandable that desperation drives people to extreme ends that they would never have gotten into had they not been poor.

Tumlin, K. C. (2004). Suspect first: How terrorism policy is reshaping immigration policy.California Law Review, 1173-1239.

According to Tumlin, the policy on terrorism played a great role in reshaping the policy on immigration. It was believed to some extent that the massive influx of immigrants to the United States contributed to the insurgence of terrorism in America. That it’s the immigrants who are responsible for the spread of ideas of radicalization among the youths in America. Therefore, the only way to reverse the growing trend and the burgeoning problem was to restrict the number of immigrants who get into the United States.

The author still acknowledges the economic impact the immigrants have to the economy of the United States since they form a large percentage of the working people in the industries and many places of work. Especially the jobs that the Americans cannot do by themselves since they consider such jobs too odd for themselves. While making such tough policies on immigration, the government in California State knew that there would be huge losses incurred and that would affect the economy but it still went ahead to enforce the policy and regulations restricting immigrants coming into the United States as they thought it would curb an increase in Terrorism.

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