Heart Anatomy

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Sophomore (College 2nd year) ・Biology ・MLA

The Heart consists of:
Superior vena cava
Aortic arch
Pulmonary artery
Left pulmonary vein
Right atrium
Pulmonary valve
Bicuspid valve
Right ventricle
Left ventricle
Superior vena cava
Channels blood from the physique to the heart
Aortic arch
Distributes oxygenated blood throughout the body
Pulmonary artery
Channels deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Left pulmonary vein
Channels oxygenated blood from the lungs to the pulmonary atrium
Right atrium
Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
Pulmonary valve
Prevent the backflow of blood from the proper ventricle to the right atrium
Bicuspid valve
Prevent the back go with the flow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium
Right ventricle
Pumps

Task 1

  • Superior vena cava
  • Aortic arch
  • Pulmonary artery
  • Left pulmonary vein
  • Right atrium
  • Pulmonary valve
  • Bicuspid valve
  • Right ventricle
  • Left ventricle
  1.  

 

 

Superior vena cava

Channels blood from the body to the heart

Aortic arch

Distributes oxygenated blood throughout the body

Pulmonary artery

Channels deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

Left pulmonary vein

Channels oxygenated blood from the lungs to the pulmonary atrium

Right atrium

Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs

Pulmonary valve

Prevent the backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium

Bicuspid valve

Prevent the back flow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium

Right ventricle

Pumps blood to the lungs for oxygenation

Left ventricle

Pumps blood to the tissues of the body for the supply of oxygen to cells of the body

 

  1.  

Superior vena cava

Transports deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart

Aorta

Distributes oxygenated blood from the heart to the body

Left pulmonary artery

Channels deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs

Left pulmonary vein

Channels oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart

Task 2

 

Arteries

Veins

Capillaries

Function

Carry blood from the heart

Takes blood to the heart

Brings blood into close contact with the body tissues

Structure of the wall

Thick walls

Thin walled

One cell thick walls

Size of the lumen

narrow

wide

Very narrow lumen

Presence of valve

No valve

Valves present

No valve

Structure and function

Thick walls because of the high pressure

Thin wall because of low pressure of the blood

Thin walls to maximize the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between the cells and blood

Task 3

The heart is considered as a double pump though it is a single organ since it is capable of pumping deoxygenated blood and unloads carbon dioxide from the blood in the lungs while at the same time pumping oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the aorta. The right ventricle of the heart pumps the poor blood to the lungs as the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the cells of the body. The more demanding task of the double-pump work is done by the left ventricle since it is stronger of the two. Apart from oxygen distribution throughout the body, the heart also helps in picking up of waste products as it delivers nutrients. The blood is moved throughout the body through its double pumping action the ensures delivery of oxygen to the relevant body cells as it picks waste products and carbon dioxide from the cells.

Task 4

a)The term Myogenic means that the cardiac muscles of the heart contract by pulses produced by the cardiac muscles or the myocytes or in other terms, cardiac muscles send signals across the heart to the cardiac muscles. It can also be taken to mean that the heart can beat without nervous or electrical impulses.

b)The Sinial Atrial Node (SAN) found at the end of the right atria initiates the cardiac cycle which sends out an electric impulse which makes the atria to contract simultaneously. The atria and the ventricles are unable to contract at the same time since the electrical impulse is blocked to the ventricles leaving it with the Atrio Ventricular Node as the only route to be taken by the electrical impulse. The impulse is delayed by 0.1 seconds by these fibers to enable the impulse to run through the bundle and in the septum. The purkyne fibers branch out under the ventricles and it is at this point that the electrical impulse initiates the simultaneous contraction of the ventricles.

c)The distinct lub dub sound listened to by the clinicians to the heart is as a result of the closing of the atrioventrivular valves. After the atria, which is the top chamber of the heart has finished emptying blood into the ventricles, the valves between the ventricles and the atria shut to prevent the blood from leaking to the wrong direction creating the lub sound. The second dub sound is created by the valves after the oxygenated blood have been pumped out of the ventricles into the aorta which distributes the blood to various parts of the body and also after pumping the deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary artery for oxygenation in the lungs. The pulmonary and the aortic valves flaps are more rigid than the atrioventricular valves flaps resulting to a shorter and crisper sound made when they close.

Task 5

a)Taking multiple recordings for blood pressure is important for the clinician to get a more accurate reading of the blood pressure of the patient. The accuracy of the reading depends on the total number of the recordings taken to establish an average blood pressure of the patient which will be the average of the recorded results taken by the clinician.

b)Anything below 120/80 is considered to be normal blood pressure. Reading between 120 and 139 is described as a pre-hypertension while that between 80 and 89 is diastolic. The blood pressure of 140/90 recorded on the patient is an insinuation the patient may be suffering from hypertension resulting from the high force exerted against the walls of the artery which is abnormally high. Hypertension on the patient can most likely lead to blindness if not vision problems.

Task 6

During exercise, the cardiovascular mainly serves five functions which include the delivery of oxygen to the muscles which are working, oxygenation of blood, transportation of heat, nutrient delivery and the transportation of hormones. Increased demand is always created by exercise to the cardiovascular system increasing sharply the demand of oxygen in the body. This results to more waste creation from the cells of the body as metabolic processes speed up. In the process, the body temperature rises as more nutrients are used up. The cardiovascular system must control these changes to make the body perform as efficient as possible through addressing the rise in demand for oxygen and nutrients.

Exercise requires more energy and thus more oxygen with how much oxygen needed depending on the intensity of the exercise and the duration taken by it. As on starts to exercise, the demand of the energy starts to increase. This leads to the need of more oxygen in the generation of energy. With the increasing exercise, more oxygen is demanded by the body leading to increased speed of the blood in the body to supply oxygen and nutrients to generate enough energy needed by the relevant organs. In the process of respiration and metabolism, more waste products are generated by the body which also needs the activity of the blood for their transportation. This increases the rate of heart beat to ensure efficient distribution of oxygen and energy to the right organs needed in the exercise.

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