Microbiology Behind Antibacterial Resistance

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There are a lot more infections from superbugs that are resistant to antibiotics recently and they are now a significant cause of alarm in public health matters. An example of these bacteria is the Klebsiella pneumonia, which is a part of the bacteria producing the Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemases, is affected by this menace. They are normal flora in the skin, mouth and intestines, and they belong to the Enterobacteriaceae bacteria (Wandering Planet, 2016). K.pneumonia that produces KPC was first reported at the NIH Clinical Centre in a female who had gotten the referral from a hospital in the city of New York (Wandering Planet, 2016). This superbug is quite significant thanks to its resistance to the last line of antibiotics: carbapenems, that are otherwise used to treat infections with the gram-negative bacteria. One mechanism incriminated in antibiotic resistance is the production of carbapenemases. These enzymes break down carbapenems through hydrolysis of their β-lactam ring (Wandering Planet, 2016). This enzymatic degradation renders the antibiotics ineffective. Augmented drug efflux is also involved where the antimicrobial is actively transported out of the bacterial cell which effectively reduces its efficacy as an antibiotic (Wandering Planet, 2016). Transfer of resistance takes place through the dissemination of plasmid-mediated carbapenemases. (Wandering Planet, 2016).

The concern herein is because infection with these bugs is tough to treat due to resistance to last-line antibiotics and is often fatal. Besides, currently, development of medicines against gram-negative bacteria has almost ceased which has far-reaching consequences as far as biomedical innovation is concerned (Wandering Planet, 2016). These bacteria also have multiple mechanisms of antibiotic resistance which means that eventually, panresistance, a public health threat may be an eventuality (Wandering Planet, 2016). Consequently, the situation herein is dire, and thus requires severe measures to counter the menace.

Work Cited

[Wandering Planet]. (2016, April 22). Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria - PBS Frontline [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gE4VzFz9PPo

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