Microbiology of Organisms

High School ・Biology ・MLA ・3 Sources

A) Describe the microbiology of chytridiomycota, zygomycota, Ascomycota and basidiomycota.

Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota both have a unicellular or filamentous cell structure. Zygomycota, on the other hand, has only a filamentous cell structure. zygomycota, Ascomycota and basidiomycota are immobile organisms and they all dwell on land. But Chytridiomycota is a mobile organism that lives in water. Chytridiomycota uses zoospores for its mobility in water. The septa present between the cells of Ascomycota and basidiomycota distinguishes them from other fungi. chytridiomycota, Zygomycota do not have septa.

B) Give one example of an organism that belongs to each group. Chytridiomycota- Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Zygomycota- Dimargaritales. Ascomycota- Cordyceps. Basidiomycota- Cryptococcus yeast

C) What is the haplodiplontic life cycle of Zygomycota? Zygomycota has both sexual and asexual life cycle. Sexual reproduction is characterized by the fusion of the gametangia containing numerous nuclei. Gametangia can be formed on hyphae of different mating types or a single hypha. If both positive and negative mating strains exist in a colony, their nuclei may fuse. A diploid nuclei is formed by the fusion of haploid nuclei. The area where the fusion has taken place develops into a massive and elaborate zygosporangium which may be containing one or more diploid nuclei. The zygosporangium acquires a thick coat which is crucial in assisting the species to survive conditions that are not favorable for growth. Meiosis occurs during the germination of the zygosporangium. Meiosis takes place when zygosporangium is germinating. Asexual reproduction takes place when hyphae grow on the surface of materials which the fungus feeds. The growth develops into clumps of erect stalks called sporangiosphores. The tips of the sporangiosphores form sporangia which are separated by septa. Thin walled haploid spores are produced within the sporangia. The spores can easily be dispersed into the environment by the wind to a new source of food (Hawker 6-7).

D) How is the dikaryotic state different from haploid or diploid states?

Dikaryotic is a state where two genetically distinct haploid nuclei coexist in one cell while in a haploid state there is a single set of chromosomes in each of its nuclei. A diploid state is one where the cell contains two sets of chromosomes in a nucleus (Hawker 77).

Works Cited

Crous, Pedro W., G. J. M. Verkley, J. Z. Groenewald, and R. A. Samson. "Fungal biodiversity." Fungal biodiversity.(2009).

Dighton, John. Fungi in ecosystem processes. Vol. 31. CRC Press, 2016.

Hawker, Lilian E. The physiology of reproduction in fungi. Cambridge University Press, 2016.

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