New Zealand Insect and Pest Control

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Junior (College 3rd year) ・Biology ・APA ・11 Sources

Reports point out that every night 50 million possums in New Zealand are chewing an estimated 20,000 tons of native plants. The staggering statistic has grow to be concern the national establishments responsible with taking care of the environment. The possums are one of the many types of pests and bugs that are continually becoming a hazard to flora and fauna and that pose a threat to different countries such as Australia. Many of the animas and insects had been introduced as native species because New Zealand is a long way away other continents and were brought through the ship transport.

Solutions

The threat to the natural plants cause by the destructive effect of the pests has thus necessitated the need to formulate way of countering the challenge.

  1. Killing and removal processes

The idea of physically killing the pest animal could either take the form of poisoning, shooting, trapping, and exclusion. Poisoning could be used in the instances where the non-target species remain unaffected that could involve setting a trap that only a specific type of animal finds attractive. Shooting alternatives are usually preferred when they targeted number of animals are low in proportions (Dean, 1994). The idea of exclusion ensures that fence is used to serve the animals and prevent the animals from crossing and causing destruction.

  1. Biological Management technique

The principle consideration in biologic mechanism involves using scientific processes and other animals to contain the population of a targeted population. Care has to be undertaken when institution such mechanism, however, because the disease introduced in the management has to ensure that it does not cross over to the neighboring counties and cause more destruction. Alternatively, the prevention from breeding cold also ensure that the population of the targeted animal or pest insect population.

  1. Habitat manipulation

The concept of habitat manipulation ensures that the environment is made to be unattractive and less sustainable for the animal and the pests that is becoming a havoc. For example, the breading mechanisms can be used to avoid the targeted pest from going extinct and until when there is a predator to helping control the population of the targeted animal. The other option in using this approach is that captive breeding can be introduced, or by opting not grazing animals on the land that has a high population of the targeted population of pests (Webber & Peterson, 2012).

Discussion

While the ideas suggested an be implemented, there are always difficulties in trying to counter the challenge of pests and animas that cause destruction It is thus important that an examination into the causes of difficultly in the use of a facility and whether it is the only solution to the challenge (Brockerhoff & Bain, 2000). Usually the challenge of varying views about the same animals will mean that while some will okay with the implementation of the control strategies, some might feel offended. Furthermore, it is imperative to consider that contradictions are kept to the low (Bridges, 1998).

Furthermore, there are usually challenges in the cost feature as the implementation of the processes could involve expensive and high costs. The source of funding that has to be clarified to ensure that there is a stable source to cover the project fully. It is also important to consider that those who promote the existence of pests on an intentional basis are discouraged from the vice (Evans, 2010). There are a broad range of factors, however, that need to be considered in ensuring that he solutions suggested bear fruit (Ridley, Bain, Bulman, Dick, & Kay, 2000).

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is important to emphasize that pests and insect pests have become one of the major challenges that exist in New Zealand today. Possums and other wild insects and pests are causing a challenge to the life forms of the animal and the plant species in the country. The suggested protocol as the solution to the problem could involve targeting the environment of the pests themselves so that habitat management, killing and biological control mechanisms all become effective. However, even when everything is in the right course, a thorough examination of the possible challenges should be done to ensure that the project is successful.

Recommendations

It is advisable that the basic assessment of the benefits and adverse effects of the pests and animals should be used to decide upon whether the threat needs an intervention and control. Usually, many of the naïve animals have an economic or biological value to the counter and precaution has to be undertaken not to make knee-jerk decisions (Department of Conservation & Christchurch, 2006). The formulation of pest risk assessment teams is usually a preferred way of ensuring that the best decisions are reached whenever there is a necessity to eradicate a given species of animals (DeNitto et al., 2015). Overall, therefore, careful precautionary measures have to be undertaken to determine the plausibility of the pest control process and the type of intervention to be used.

References

Branco, M., Brockerhoff, E. G., Castagneyrol, B., Orazio, C., & Jactel, H. (2015). Host range expansion of native insects to exotic trees increases with area of introduction and the presence of congeneric native trees. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52(1), 69–77. http://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12362

Bridges, J. R. (1998). Exotic Pests: Major Threats to Forest Health. Forest Health. Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr267/rm_gtr267_105_113.pdf

Brockerhoff, E. G., & Bain, J. (2000). Biosecurity implications of exotic beetles attacking trees and shrubs in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection, 53(Gottschalk 1990), 321–327.

Dean, T. (1994). Invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand : DOC ’ s present and future management. DOC’s Management of Freshwater Invasive Fish, (Collier), 1–9.

DeNitto, G. A., Cannon, P., Eglitis, A., Glaeser, J. A., Maffei, H., & Smith, S. (2015). Risk and Pathway Assessment for the Introduction of Exotic Insects and Pathogens That Could Affect Hawai“i”s Native Forests. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr250/psw_gtr250.pdf

Department of Conservation, & Christchurch. (2006). New Zealand invertebrates. Department of Conservation. Retrieved from http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/about-doc/concessions-and-permits/conservation-revealed/nz-invertebrates-lowres.pdf

Evans, H. F. (2010). Pest risk analysis - Organisms or pathways? New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 40(SUPPL.), 35–44.

Georgina Wedge of Creative Educational Resources. (2015). The how and why of possum control. NPCA. Retrieved from http://www.npca.org.nz/images/stories/NPCA/PDF/d1_teachers-booklet_web.pdf

Olsen, P. (1998). Australia’s pest animals. Bureau of Resource Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.pestsmart.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Olsen98.pdf

Ridley, G. S., Bain, J., Bulman, L. S., Dick, M. A., & Kay, M. K. (2000). Threats to New Zealand’s indigenous forests from exotic pathogens and pests. Science for Conservation, (142), 1–67.

Webber, C., & Peterson, A. (2012). Native and exotic flower visitors in the Christchurch Botanic Gardens and their contrasting plant preferences. New Zealand Natural Sciences, 37–49. Retrieved from http://www.science.canterbury.ac.nz/nzns/issues/vol37-2012/webber.pdf

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