Pathways of Cellular

Sophomore (College 2nd year) ・Biology ・MLA

Amino Acids and Their Role in the Body

Amino acids are made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms. They comprise an amine group, a carboxylic group, and a side chain commonly denoted as R. Polypeptides are made up of amino acids that are folded together by peptide bonds to structure linear polymers. The human body can store strength in different forms. The conversion of amino acids into fats is one of the processes. The physique can also convert excess glucose into fats. Glucose is the predominant source of energy in the body, and it is the easiest form of carbohydrates.

The Role of Amino Acids in Energy Supply

The main position of amino acids is to synthesize and maintain body proteins. However, amino acids can act as sources of energy in the human body. They can yield up to 4 calories per gram. If human beings take in a lot of proteins to cover their energy needs, the extra amino acids are stored as body fats. Proteins are converted into amino acids and ammonia. The excess carbon is converted to glucose for energy supply. In the presence of enough glucose for energy supply, the excess glucose is not converted into glycogen in the muscles or liver but turned into fats and stored in the body.

The Role of Glucose in Energy Production

Glucose is a molecule containing six-carbon sugars. First, the human body converts the six-carbon molecule through a process of glycolysis into a three-carbon molecule. It is then converted into acetyl-CoA. In case the body needs vital energy, the acetyl-CoA is converted into ATP to provide energy through the citric-acid cycle. In the presence of excess glucose, ATP molecules are not formed. Instead, acetyl-CoA is synthesized into triglycerides which are stored as energy molecules in the fat tissues. The tissues can be broken down later to produce energy.

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