Precautionary Principle and Its Effects

Senior (College 4th year) ・Healthcare&Medicine ・APA ・8 Sources

Definition and Explanation of ‘internal validity’ and an example: Internal validity refers to the extent to which an experiment is well conducted by ensuring that not more than one independent variable is acting. Confounding is a term used to describe a case where more than one variable is acting to produce results for one dependent variable (, n.d). A good example of internal validity is where a control experiment is set up to answer the negative hypothesis.

Definition and explanation of ‘external validity’ and an example

External validity is the extent to which the conclusions have arrived in a study. Thus external validity is about generalizations (Trochim, 2006;,   2017). For example, the conclusion states that the reason for absenteeism at work among all employees results from the exposure of the male workers to dangerous chemicals.

Justification of using the PP for addressing the Issue and the Basis of my Reason Grounded on External or Internal Validity

It is justifiable to use the precautionary principle to address the problem of exposure of employees to the harmful chemicals in an attempt to decrease risks to other employees (Gardiner, 2006). The reason to address the matter grounds on the external validity, which considers that the many sick days,   experienced among an unusually large number of employees results from long-term exposure to the chemical. By generalizing the outcome, it would be possible to come with a mechanism to redress the issues. 

Recommendations for Managing the Risks  Associated with the Interaction of Employees with Titanium Glycol

Control or passive control measures can be taken to address the issue of contact with the harmful chemical. The active control measure is that, which necessitates some level of motion or action to work efficiently in the wake of the danger   (Bhatt & Tripathi, 2011). An example of such a control is substitution,   which is the replacement of Titanium Glycol with a less volatile chemical.   The suggestion is effective because it would render fewer risks than Titanium   Glycol (Faustaman & Omenn, 2001). However, the substitution measure could face a limitation because there is no substitute element for manufacturing paint other than the harmful chemical.

Passive control measures seek to contain the harm of the chemical or slow the spread through using barriers or distance (Moskowitz & Fthennakis, 2009). One example of passive control is isolation, which encompasses the separation of the male workers from the harmful chemicals to minimize exposure. The approach can be effective if closed systems such as those used in transferring flammable fluids in petrol refineries or glove bags are used   (Klaine, Alvarez, Batley, Fernandes, Handy, Lyon & Lead, 2008). However,   there is still a limitation with the method because people will definitely have to encounter the chemicals during the paint manufacturing processes.

Precautionary Principle’s Negative Effects

One negative effect of applying the PP is the possibility of internal consistency. Applying the formulations can cause harms particularly in policy decisions. Moreover, the precautionary principle advocates for action in the wake of scientific uncertainty (Fisher, Jones,   & von Schomberg, 2006). As a result, some formulations do not stipulate the minimum threshold. The precautionary principle calls for action in the face of scientific uncertainty and as such, a suggested activity or product might be harmful to the people or the environment.


Bhatt, I., & Tripathi, B. N. (2011). Interaction of engineered nanoparticles with various components of the environment and possible strategies for their risk assessment. Chemosphere, 82(3), 308-317.

Fisher, E. C., Jones, J. S., & von Schomberg, R. (Eds.). (2006). Implementing the precautionary principle: perspectives and prospects. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Gardiner, S. M. (2006). A core precautionary principle. Journal of Political Philosophy, 14(1), 33-60., (n.d). Internal validity. Retrieved from

Klaine, S. J., Alvarez, P. J., Batley, G. E., Fernandes, T. F., Handy, R. D., Lyon, D. Y., & Lead, J. R. (2008). Nanomaterials in the environment: behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects. Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 27(9), 1825-1851.

Moskowitz, P. D., &Fthenakis, V. M. (1990). Approaches to identifying, characterizing and managing risks from accidentally released toxic gases. Hazard Assessment of Chemicals, 13. (2017). External Validity. [online] Retrieved from

Trochim, M, W. (2006). External validity. Social Research Retrieved from

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