Pros and cons of Endothermy and Ectothermy in animals

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Endothermy is a medical order where an animal body temperature is controlled by environmental condition. Ectotherms like fishes, amphibians, and reptiles do not have the the ability to keep a steady body temperature, but it has it’s pros in terms of the energy cost since maintaining their internal temperature won’t involve a lot of energy dissipation. Endotherms produce their body heat internally. Birds and mammals are Endotherms, therefore they can survive changes in temperature. However, Birds and mammals changed endothermy on their own because they emerged from different groups of reptiles (Kisia, 2009).

Herbivore and carnivore Digestive tract

By and large, it is not easy to digest vegetation as compared to meat. So herbivores have flat teeth for exhaustive grinding, as opposed the sharp teeth of carnivores which is designed to tear flesh. Moreover, the saliva of true carnivores does not contain digestive enzymes.

Digestion of Macromolecules

Digestion of macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins involves hydrolysis reactions which are enzyme catalyzed. Digestion of proteins takes place in the stomach and duodenum with the help of three main enzymes: pepsin from the stomach, trypsin and chymotrypsin from the pancreas. Digestion of carbohydrates involves the breaking down of bonds between glucose molecules by the salivary and pancreatic amylase. Fat digestion may begin in the mouth, where short-chain lipids are broken down into diglycerides, and in the small intestine where it stimulates the release of lipase from the pancreas. It also stimulates the release of bile from the liver which enables the conversion of fats into fatty acids.

Circulatory System of Animals

Fishes have a single systemic circuit for blood. Other animals, including reptiles, mammals, and birds have a two systematic circuits, a pulmonary circuit a systemic circuit where blood is pumped to the body. Amphibians have a third circuit that brings deoxygenated blood to the skin for gas exchange to occur.

Works Cited

Boundless. “Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids.” Boundless Anatomy and Physiology Boundless, 07 Nov. 2016. Retrieved 09 Mar. 2017 from

Kisia, S. M. "Vertebrates: structures and functions." Biological systems in vertebrates (2009).

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