Reproductive system of humans

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Freshman (College 1st year) ・Biology ・APA ・3 Sources

Living things reproduce naturally. The process takes place in different forms depending on the organism. For animals, the process is quite complicated. In the human reproductive system through which their offspring are created, for example, all organs involved in the process should be working properly for good results. The most important part in this system is the ovum or the egg produced in the female body and moves at a specific to receive the sperm from a male.

During or shortly after copulation, fertilization takes place. Then the fertilized ovum is immediately taken to the uterus where it uterus or commonly referred as the womb. Here the implantation of the blastocyst takes place at the uterus walls. The placenta is formed which primary function is to maintain the fetus during the whole period of gestation. The birth then takes home after nine months, and the placenta is removed as well. The baby starts to suck immediately, and the maternal care begins on a different cycle with the primary focus being the new baby. At long last, the reproductive organs slow returns to normal (Harrison, 2016)

For this biological process of reproduction to take place, specific organs are needed in both female and male. Female egg cells are produced from ovaries, and male sperms are produced from testes housed in a scrotum. Apart from providing male and female gametes, ovaries and testicles also produce female and male hormones which act as propelling factor for these biological processes (Harrison, 2016)

Male Reproductive System

Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System

Scrotum

This is a sac-like, skin make organ with muscles which protect the testis. It is the lower part of the penis located in pubic area. The scrotum is made in a unique with two side by side pouches-like skin whereby testis are found in each. Its muscles are relatively smooth which make it possible for the scrotum to separate testis from the body (Thomas, 2016).

Sometimes it becomes warm, and for testes to support sperms, scrotum relaxes and moves the testes away from the high temperature of the body. When it gets cold, the scrotum contracts, forcing the testes close to the body temperature to maintain relative temperature needed for the production of sperms (Thomas, 2016).

Testes

They are also known as testicles. They are male organs (gonads) which are entirely responsible for the production of spermatogenesis. They also do produce a male hormone called testosterone. They are glandular organs, and they are typically located inside of scrotum pouches. They are connected to the pubic area by cremaster muscles which contract and relaxes together with scrotum to maintain the standard temperature needed. Testes are internally dived into small segments well known as lobules. These lobules have sections of seminiferous tubule with epithelial cells well lined within. These cells have many pillar cells subdivided to form sperm cells. All these happen by a process called spermatogenesis (Thomas, 2016).

Epididymis

This is a sperm storage organ. The epididymis is located on the superior side of the testes, and it is made up of long, thin and extremely coiled tubules which form a small mass. When sperms are produced in testes, they move to epididymis to be stored until there are mature enough.

Spermatic cord

Inside the scrotum are spermatic cords which connect the testes to the abdominal cavity. These cords have ductus deferens with nerves, arteries, veins as well as lymphatic vessels which in turn offer to support the work of the testes. Vas deferens which are still another name for ductus deferens is a tube which is muscular and brings along sperms from epididymis to the abdominal cavity and finally to the ejaculatory duct. These ducts are also wide enough, and they use their internal cavity to store sperms which have matured over time. They as well have smooth muscles which, makes it possible to move sperms along through peristalsis (Thomas, 2016).

Seminal Vesicles

These are pairs of lumpy exocrine glands which have the function of storing as well as producing liquid semen. They are located in the higher part of the urinary bladder and lower side of the rectum. They provide this liquid which has mucus and proteins with alkalinity for the survival of sperms since the vagina has a harsh acidic environment. This fluid also has sugars in the form of fructose where sperms feed on for them to survive a long time to fertilize the ova (Thomas, 2016).

Ejaculatory Duct

The epithelial duct goes through the prostate and directly connects with the urethra at an organ called the ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory duct has the ducts from the seminal vesicles further. Throughout the ejaculation, the channel opens and expels spermatogenesis and also the secretions from the seminal vesicles into the urethra.

Urethra

Semen goes through from the ejaculatory duct to the vagina by the urethra. It is a muscular tube which about 10 inches long. It goes through the prostate to the external of the urethra which is situated at the peak of the penis. Urine also is excreted through the urethra from the urinary bladder.

Prostrate

It is small-sized exocrine gland which is on the border of the urinary bladder and is around the urethra. Prostrate is one responsible for producing a significant amount of semen fluid, which is milky in color and has enzymes, proteins, and chemicals which do support sperms when ejaculation is taking place. Prostrate also has very smooth muscles which constrict in the prevention of flow of urine or even semen (Thomas, 2016).

Penis

This is the male reproductive organ which is externally located. It is cylindrical and has urethra opening. It is made up of erectile tissues which are filled with blood during the erection, and it increases its size as well as becomes very rigid for proper copulation.

Semen

Semen is produced by prostate, and it usually is ejaculate during copulation. It houses sperms, which are the primary reproductive cells in males. It has chemicals which give it thick and silky nature. This nature is of great help to support the sperms to remain inside the vagina after copulation as well as neutralizing the acidic environment of vaginal fluid (Thomas, 2016).

Female Reproductive System

Anatomy of Female Reproductive System

Vagina

This is the external opening of the female reproductive system which connects the cervix, located at the lower side of the uterus to the outside of the body. It is also referred to us birth canal is the path through which fetus exit from. The vagina is also a vital organ since it receives the sperms during copulation for fertilization (Johnson, 2016).

Ovaries

These are small glands which are oval and are situated on both left and right side of the uterus. These ovaries produce eggs to be fertilized as well as various hormones (Johnson, 2016).

Uterus

This is a hollow place kind of an organ which acts the house of the developing fetus. It has thick walls with well-lined veins and arteries to support the baby for nine months (Johnson, 2016).

Fallopian Tube

These are very narrow tubes which are directly attached to the superior part of the uterus, and they function as the channels through which ova go through to the conception place for fertilization to happen. After fertilization, the ova travel to the uterus for implantation into the already prepared uterus (Johnson, 2016

References

Harrison, R. (2016). Human reproductive system. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/human-reproductive-system

Johnson, T. (2016). Your Guide to the Female Reproductive System. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/sex-relationships/guide/your-guide-female-reproductive-system#4

Thomas, E. (2016, November 30). The Process of Human Reproduction. Retrieved from https://www.livestrong.com/article/41184-process-human-reproduction/

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