Sience of Architecture

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Freshman (College 1st year) ・Architecture ・Chicago ・3 Sources

By definition, architecture stands for the technique and art of building and designing as amazing from the construction related skills. Architectural practices help in satisfying both the "expressive" and practical requirements. For this reason, it serves both aesthetic and utilitarian ends. Even even though it is possible to distinguish such two ends, one cannot separate them. Besides, there can be a considerable variant in the relative weight of each of these ends. Naturally, there is a spatial relationship of all the societies with one another irrespective of their level of development, as nicely as the method of settlement. There are several characteristics used for distinguishing an architecture's work from other human-made structures. One of the characteristics includes the use of of ideas and experience communication through its form. The second feature is the performance and stability of the construction of work. Moreover, the work’s adaptability to its specific human activities and its suitability to use by human beings is another method used for distinguishing the architecture’s work. The profession of architecture has to meet all these conditions. Even though some circumstances vary in relative importance regarding the building’s social function, others may appear constant.

The communication becomes less importance provided there is a chief utilitarian function, for example in the factory settings. However, the utility becomes a minor concern provided there is a principal expressive of function, such as in the monumental tomb. In some buildings like city halls and churches, the communication and utility may be of equal importance. This paper mainly explores the elements, methods, forms, as well as the architecture’s theory.

Historical Treatises

The work of Vitruvius, the Roman architect, still acts as one of the earliest surviving written projects on the architecture's subject. Vitruvius argues that there are three principles that a good building has to satisfy. In particular, these principles include the commodity, firmness, as well as the delight. In modern English, these principles refer to utility, durability, and beauty. The utility involves the suitability of the project to serve its useful purpose. In the same way, durability mainly means that the proposed building should always remain in excellent condition and stand up robustly. Finally, the use of beauty is primarily for the aesthetic pleasing of the building.

Additionally, Vitruvius notes that any architect should aim at fulfilling all the three attributes as much as possible. Again, Leon Battista Alberti helps in elaborating on the Vitruvius’ ideas in his treaty. Leon Battista Alberti thinks that there is a matter of proportion in the beauty of a project, even though other things such as ornaments play a significant role. According to Alberti, the proportion rules are the ones governing the idealized figure of the human, the Gold mean. In this case, the inherent part of an object forms an essential aspect of beauty. The period of the 16th century marked the development of the notion of the style in the arts. Subsequently, the lives of the most excellent sculptors, painters, as well as the architects were translated into other languages by the 18th century. These different languages include Spanish, Italian, English, and French.

Modern Concepts

The notable skyscrapers’ architect of the 19th century, Louis Sullivan helped in promoting an overriding precept to the design of architecture. While the notion was met although, with skepticism and popularity that considerations of esthetic and structural should be an entire subject to functionality, it impacted on the introduction of the “function’s” concept in place of the utility of Vitruvius. People consider “function” as the best way to encompass all the perceptions, criteria of use, as well as the building’s enjoyment. This notion is appearing cultural, aesthetic, psychological, and practical to the building industry.

Architecture goes beyond the aspects of functions through its dimension of aesthetics that the profession shares with other human sciences. It is possible for architecture to influence and manipulate social life without the necessary need to presume that, in and of itself, will results in the promotion of the social development through its own specific way of value expression. It is both purposeless request and reactionary to restrict the architectural formalism meaning to art. This procedure appears purposeless quest for originality or perception which results in the form degradation into a mere instrumentality. Several philosophies influence the architects of the modern times as well as their approaches to the design of the buildings. These philosophies include empiricism, rationalism, and poststructuralism. More philosophies are the structuralism and the phenomenology.

The Types of Architecture

Both the society and the architects establish the architectural types according to their different institutions’ needs. In fact, the society contributes to the setting and assigning of the goals to the architect. Naturally, the creation of the architect is mainly to help in fulfilling the group or individual’s specifications. Also, the law of economic denies the architects the power to emulate their fellow artists in the production of works with either potential or nonexistent demand. For this reason, the architecture’s type relies mainly on the social formations. Moreover, the classification of these types may depend on the patron’s roles in the community. In short, there are several types of architecture. For example, the "vernacular architecture," the domestic architecture, as well as the power architecture.

Vernacular Architecture

Usually, inactive forces are producing architectural style' dynamic evolution in communal buildings such as farms and homes. Most of the fundamental changes may alter the average person's life within the institutions. Naturally, the pressure of economics is one of the factors causing an average individual to limit his/ her demands to the level that is maintainable by the technology at that time. Some of the old techniques are used for building new structures because both innovation and experiment are costlier compared to repetition.

Domestic Architecture

The production of the domestic architecture is mainly for the social unit. Markedly, social unit involves either the family, individual, or clan as well as their dependents, animal, and human. Domestic architecture helps in providing security and shelter for the life’s fundamental physical functions. Moreover, it can also provide security and shelter for industrial, agricultural, as well as the commercial activities involving the unit of a family rather than community. It is quite simple to come up with a domestic architecture. In reality, the domestic architecture consists merely of a place for preparing food, sleep, work, and perhaps eat. Even though the place is protected from weather, it must be fitted with some light. Some of the necessities of this kind of building include sturdy walls with a door, roof, a hearth, and a window. Everything else is a luxury.

Power Architecture

It is possible to distinguish another residential building "power architecture" with an increase in the wealth and expressive functions. The society’ pattern gives some of its members the power for resource utilization of the community in various constructions in almost every civilization. Some of the notable constructions include villas, recreation places, homes, gardens, as well as palaces.

Conclusion

This paper explored the field of architecture accordingly. It is noted that architectural practices help in fulfilling both the expressive and practical requirements. Thus, this field serves both aesthetic and utilitarian ends. Even though it is possible to distinguish such two ends, one cannot separate them. Besides, there can be a great variation in the relative weight of each of these ends. Naturally, there is a spatial relationship of all the societies with one another irrespective of their level of development, as well as the method of settlement. Also, architecture is said to exist in various types. Each type has its unique functions.

Bibliography

Arnold, Daniel E. R. 2013. "The Architecture of Torture/The Architecture of Disavowal: Torture, Race, And the Visual In glory and the Siege". The Muslim World 103 (2): 236-249. doi:10.1111/muwo.12005.

Malathouni, Christina. 2013. "Architecture is the Pattern of Human Mind in Space: Claude F. Bragdon and the Spatial Concept of Architecture". The Journal of Architecture 18 (4): 553-569. doi:10.1080/13602365.2013.821666.

Yarina, Elizabeth. 2017. "How Architecture Became Capitalism’s Handmaiden: Architecture as Alibi for The High Line’s Neoliberal Space of Capital Accumulation". Architecture and Culture 5 (2): 241-263. doi:10.1080/20507828.2017.1325263.

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