Streptococcus Pneumoniae Analysis

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Sophomore (College 2nd year) ・Biology ・MLA ・8 Sources

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a microorganism that comes from the species of streptococcus. The microbiological organism is a causative agent of pneumonia. The microbial organism is transmitted from one person to the other thru inhaling. Streptococcus pneumoniae don not form spores, and they commonly exist in a colony known as diplococci. They are the human pathogenic bacterium that causes pneumonia.

Streptococcus pneumoniae which differentiate from different streptococci through the optochin test. Gram-positive coccoid has a unique structure of lancet diplococci distinguishing them from the others. They are known to be resistant to drugs. The microbial organism has a polysaccharide capsule which acts as a virulence element for the body(Niederman, 2001). There exist different serotypes where their point of variation comes from prevalence, virulence and the extent of drug-resistant.

Background information

Previously pneumoniae, was associated with HIV AIDs where many people sought to believe that Pneumonia is a disease caused by a virus. The reason behind the people stating that is because, in almost all cases where a HIV patient existed Pneumonia was one of the diseases they were diagnosed with.

Purpose objective

The purpose of the laboratory test is to know the identification procedure used and the laboratory requirements needed to undertake the same.

Materials and methods

The lab procedure used some materials which include Glass slides, Stirring rods/ sticks, Pneumoslide™ latex negative control, Pneumoslide™ polyvalent positive control and Pneumoslide Streptococcus pneumoniae. Other Laboratory available materials were Trypticase™ Soy Agar with 5% Sheep Blood, Brain Heart Infusion, SEPTI-CHEK™ TSB, Pasteur pipettes, 50 microliter pipette, sterile purified water, Centrifuge and Sterile Physiological saline - 0.85% sodium chloride, (Nascimento-Carvalho et al., 2001).

As the procedure discussed in details by, (Draing, 2007), I started by spreading the culture thioglycolate broth on a microscope slide. I did spread the culture to cover from 1/2 to 1/3 of the slide. The next procedure was to allow the smear to dry, which took an hour room condition. After that, I covered the entire bacterial smear with three drops of methanol to fix any smear issues and allow it to dry. The stage also took an hour. I later covered the stain with crystal violet stain and gave it a minute before staining with cool tap water and drained the slide. I added Iodine and allowed a minute for the iodine to wash off with water and emptied the water from the slide. I rinsed the decolorizer solution within 10 seconds. I later covered the smear with safranin stain and allowed to stand for a minute; then I washed the slide gently. After the above method, I blotted the slide dry using an absorbent paper and examined the slide under the oil immersion lens.

Results

The lab results entailed some procedures to define and stated what the specimen availed, and the results are as follows on a worksheet:

Test/ Stain Performed

Results

Comments

Gram Staining

Streptococcus Chain

Streptococcus

Catalase

Negative

No Bulbs

Hemolysis

 

Alpha

Camp

Negative

No haemolysis

Bacteria (A)

Negative

Grama

Spore

Positive

Grama

SXT

Negative

Gramahaemolysis

Bile Solubility

Negative

Clear

Naci

Negative

Clear

As discussed (In Leber, 2016), the above test carried out indicates what is available in the specimen as Positive while anything that is not available it’s denoted as Negative. Though that is the top level description of the results, there is a blank item that shows the test not conducted while another one has an explanation since it is quite significant for it to fall important in the lab.

Discussion or conclusions

The above data shows that all the tests had a negative response apart from Gram Stain test and Streptococcus. (Klugman, 2009), The laboratory tests indicate that Streptococcus pneumoniae are there since the streptococcus chain is available and at the same time, Streptococcus is also positive showing that Grama is significantly present thus positive. The presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the specimen statement is because of the diplococci and as said positive Grama results.

From the test, I would recommend using young cultures other than using the old cultures. The reason behind this is because young cultures have distinctive characteristic observation than the older specimens. Additionally, as discussed by (In Sutton, 2014), I would use fresh stains other the ones exposed to antimicrobial reagents which may have atypical morphology and are quite susceptible to decolorization. To some extent decolorized gram +ve organisms may decolorize to appear gram -ve.

Clinical Impact of the Analysis:

From a clinical point of view, the test is supposed to be administered whenever a patient comes for medication and they have been coughing for some time and chest pains. Streptococcus pneumoniae, is known to infect the breathing system impacting the chest and also causing some irritation within the trachea causing coughing.

The author, (In Sutton, 2014), states that, transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae, is through air where someone infected exhales and somebody else inhales the same air mostly in an enclosed area. Once Streptococcus pneumoniae, is inhaled it moves straight to the lungs where it starts multiplying within the alveoli and starts impacting the breathing system.

As means of preventing the spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae, there is a vaccination on the same where people who are not infected receive the vaccination. The vaccines though administered don't prevent all the infections relating to bacteria. Milder infections are what people who are vaccinated get unlike the unvaccinated, (In Sutton, 2014).

Ceftriaxone is a type of chemical that treats pneumococci. (Griffith University, 2012) states that, the use Ceftriaxone has reduced penicillin susceptibility. Though used it is not advisable to use it whenever there exists high resistance to penicillin pneumococci. The treatment is empiric of meningitis in combination with vancomycin or rifampin.

 

References

Draing, C. (2007). Immunostimulation by lipoteichoic acids from Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Griffith University. (2012). Pneumonia.

In Leber, A. L. (2016). Clinical microbiology procedures handbook.

In Sutton, A. L. (2014). Respiratory disorders sourcebook: Basic consumer health information about the risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of lung and respiratory disorders, including asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd), influenza, lung cancer, pneumonia, and other infectious and inflammatory pulmonary diseases ; along with information about pediatric respiratory disorders, tips on preventing respiratory problems and living with chronic lung disease, a glossary of related terms, and a directory of resources for additional help and information.

Klugman, K. P. (2009). Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. London: Henry Stewart Talks.

Nascimento-Carvalho, C. M., Lopes, A. A., Gomes, M. D., Magalhaes, M. P., Oliveira, J. R., Vilas-Boas, A. L., … Di, F. J. (2001). Community acquired Pneumonia among pediatric outpatients in Salvador, northeast Brazil, with emphasis on the role of pneumococcus. (Brazilian journal of infectious diseases, 5, 1, 13-20.

Niederman, M. S. (2001). Respiratory infections. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.

Reeves, D. S., Spencer, D. C., & Symonds, J. (2002). Streptococcus pneumoniae: Antimicrobials and ecology. Birmingham, UK: Published for the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy by Oxford University Press.

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