The Enemy

Junior (College 3rd year) ・Healthcare&Medicine ・MLA ・3 Sources

Influenza, sometimes known as the flu, is a respiratory illness brought on by the influenza virus. Both children and adults are affected by this sickness worldwide. Estimates of its attack rate for adults range between 5 and 10 percent, while estimates for youngsters range between 20 and 30 percent (Centers for Disease Control and Prevetion). Because of this disease's prevalence, biological, social, economic, and ecological problems have emerged. The impact of economic disruptions and the cost of interventions are key considerations in respect to treatment costs. Social disruptions emanate from the Influenza’s financial burden that has from time to time shifted to the society.

The War

The most basic influenza transmission is the human to human, this often occurs when there is direct contact with infected individuals, contaminated objects, and inhalation of virus-laden sprays. Influenza is often caused by the Influenza virus that often attacks the epithelial cells of both the upper and the lower respiratory tract, RNP's then enters into the cell nucleus, the virus then replicates, finally, the RNP's are then exported to the cell plasma membrane.

The Defence

Immune responses are often stimulated or rather triggered by the Influenza infection, especially during its early stages. At first, the host often produces cytokines, this is a defense mechanism that often encourages the activation of antigens that are often adaptive in nature. Toll-like receptors is another example of immune-response that often produce antigens. This receptor often acts as signals, through RNA binding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevetion, n.p).


Influenza infection is often manifested through the following symptoms. Fever, this often associated with chills, running nose, muscle aches, headaches, fatigue, vomiting and diarrhea and congestion of the nose just to mention a few (WHO, N.p). These symptoms often appear first after infection. However after the manifestation of these symptoms especially within the first two weeks, this often include Pneumonia, this complication has been often regarded as threatening to a greater extent, which in other words means that it could lead to death. Sinus infections and bronchitis just to mention a few are examples of complications that emanate from influenza infections. This infection also tends to make chronic diseases such as Asthma fatal. Also, it tends to be fatal with persons susceptible to heart failure.

The Victory

The diagnosis of the Influenza infection is often dependent on the doctor or rather physicians being aware of Influenza outbreak in the society and the community as a whole. There are several Influenza diagnostics techniques and tests that are Rapid Influenza Diagnostic tests (RIDT’s) (KS George, N.p). This particular diagnostic tests are immunoassays in nature, they help in identifying the presence of Influenza A or B in respiratory tract specimens. This tests ate fast in that they take approximately fifteen minutes to yield results. However there are certain limitations associated with this tests that is, sometimes these results yield negative result, especially in cases where Influenza infections are high to a greater extent, also false results may be obtained in the case whereby the Influenza infection is low and last but not least RIDTs may sometimes fail to distinguish or rather differentiate Influenza A or B. Influenza infections are often treated in time so as prevent serious complications. These medications often range from prescriptions of antiviral medications, this medication can also be used to prevent Influenza infections. Antiviral medicines include the following: oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir just to mention a few (WHO, N.p). Physicians also often recommend that infected individuals take plenty of fluids, this helps in the prevention of dehydration. These doctors often recommend a lot of bed rests. Outbreaks of Influenza infections often facilitate the emergence of epidemics that are United Nations and common wealth has devised mechanisms that help in control this infection. This involves the provision of Influenza vaccinations to individuals that are both adults and children. Commonwealth, for example, draws upon physicians or rather the health workforce to administer this vaccination.

Case Based Question

The epidemical investigation should be conducted, this help in identifying the root cause of the outbreak. Before embarking on this investigation, verifications of the diagnosis should be determined in order to identify whether an outbreak is present or not.

Evaluations of the case at hand should be examined to a greater extent, this is through establishing a working case scenario, this is through the adoption of the descriptive epidemiology. Using this will facilitate the development of a hypothesis and also the evaluation of a hypothesis in order to determine the causes of the outbreak.

The result of the investigation is significant mostly it enables physicians to define, the causes, the symptoms, the diagnosis and the prevention of the diseases, it also helps in developing precautionary measures that will help in reducing the likelihood of contraction of this disease.

Defficile toxins have existed before, which means treatments are present, this mostly include metronidazole. However treatments were not available for terminally ill individuals.

The environmental investigation should also be conducted in order to determine, the toxins present in the environment that facilitate the development of this particular outbreak. For the purposes of controlling the outbreak, the infected individuals should be isolated, so as to prevent it from spreading. Vaccines should also be developed so as to prevent other people to contracting this particular illness.

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control and Prevetion. (n.d.). Retrieved from

KS, George. "Diagnosis of Influenza Virus. - Pubmed - NCBI." Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov, 2017,

"WHO | Emerging Diseases." Who.Int, 2017,

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