the Illustrious career of Maderno

Freshman (College 1st year) ・Art ・MLA

Maderno started his architectural career by designing the nave and the façade of Santa Susana where he changed the Michelangelo’s Greek-cross plan into a longitudinal one. He later was appointed chief architect in 1603. His achievements has both been criticized and appreciated because of its influential grouping of huge betrothed columns. Maderno was also responsible for designing the Santa Maria Della Vittoria building in (1608–20). Bernini solely redesigned and decorated St Peters during the period of Baroque. He also altered the design of the altars, toms and stairways. One other notable contribution was the construction of the Baldacchino that was under the dome and above the altar. In addition he designed and constructed the Petri Cathedral located on the eastern side of St. Peter’s.

  1. Bernini’s David is in the middle of the battle where he is ready to use his sling to hit Goliath. His leg muscle are very tight stepping forward as gathers momentum to hurl the rock in his sling. Bernini chose to depict the action of slinging the stone before exposing David’s nudity as his was pulled away from his body. The statue shows the subjects in motion in the middle of a rigorous battle.

On other hand the statue during Renaissance depicts David as a young, strong and confident man. It exposes his nude masculine in a relaxed pose holding a slingshot over the shoulder. His concentration shows us how emotional he was in that moment. In this statue David stares into the space while knitting his brow in preparation for the battle.

  1. Borromini used concave forms on the upper level of the Chapel. He used pilasters to restrain the forces that pushes the bulging forms outward. His interior elevation of the Chapel is star shaped with round points and apses on all side. Unlike the Renaissance domes, Borromini used an organic part with the qualities of the separating walls.
  2. It is an Italian phrase for transported paintings. It describes framed paintings painted on into a fresco and viewed in normal perspective.
  3. They were criticized for being too natural in painting. Bellori’s great respect for their painting show that at time they were received well. He preferred classicist work of the Annibale Carracci show the great skill of the artist.
  4. The theme of the las Meninas was show the casual moment in the royal family’s life. It main focus is Infanta Margarita’s beauty, intelligence and her interest as well as the beauty of the visible world. Velasquez made her the central figure in paint by placing her closet to the center of the axis and the streaming light on the window falling on her. This depicts her authority as the daughter of the King of Spain.
  5. The school was established by the Carracci family who were seeking new innovative ways to break away the traditional ways of paintings. It collected artists who were looking for new approach that not only reflected Roman mannerism. It style of painting which was simple and clear was perfect for the catholic religious painting to counter the reformation of the protestant by Martin Luther.
  6. Caravaggio aimed to design painting that depicted the truth and naturalism. He was determined to change the popular notion of the of what the eyes sees hence painting with realism. He also aimed to create a visible symbol of a revived catholic faith in the city of Rome. His working relationship with Costantino Spata made him meet a patron who was interested in his art work which made him gain the cardinal protection. His patron Del Monte encouraged him to paint the original teasing pictures.
  7. Ceiling frescoes were used to depict the miracles and suffering of the saints in Europe. They were used by the Roman Catholic to counter the protestant reformation by conveying the emotions and greater realism. The sculptures and painting worked together as a unifying factor.
  8. She treated the traditional subjects with originality and her work was excellent. She excelled in the art of painting by exercising a creative talent despite it being exclusively dominated by male. Her letters depict that the female artists were neglected and this made it difficult to excel in a male dominated art. It was difficult for female artist to get patrons to work with during this period. Many women were artists could not be admitted in studios of successful artists.

Chapter 20

  1. The believe that the a country’s fortune and power were accumulated by exporting and collecting precious metals such as gold, silver and bronze in return contributed to the foundation of Mercantilism. Many European governments wanted to take control over the economy by minimizing imports and maximizing export in exchange for gold.
  2. Patronage in the Netherlands was for the rich aristocrats who become patrons for artists. During the protestant reformation in Netherlands the art become commercial where pictures and paintings could be sold in the marketplace. Unlike the rest of Europe where patron were normally Roman Catholic Faith, in Netherlands artists solicited patrons by creating new genres.

Protestants reformation in Netherlands caused civil disorders that destroyed the religious art such as tomb sculptures and altar panels. Artists lost religious patrons as compared to other parts in Europe.

  1. Camera Obscura is the projection of an image as reversed and inverted on the opposite surface through a small hole in a screen. For the image to be clear, the surroundings of the projected image has to be relatively dark. To use a camera obscura a small opening is made on the screen to observe the image and project it back as an inverted image on a surface which is relatively dark.
  2. Landscape painting grew as an independent genre in Netherlands due to the artists relations to their land. This was more dominant in Antwerp where landscape was a popular subject for printmakers and draftsmen’s. The pioneers of landscape paintings used woodcuts, engravings and etchings to spread the subject of landscape and it composition.
  3. Where the client were not satisfied the commission was withdrawn without pay hence humiliating the artist. There was rejection by the committee which meant the artist could not enjoy the benefits offered by it. There was also a conflict between the Catholics and Protestants that led to the disappearance of the market for religious themes. Hals his style of painting work was always in demand throughout his life. He painted portraits of the wealthy citizens. He was the golden age painter and practiced the realism approach.
  4. A Vanitas was a painting that collected the symbolic objects of the inevitable death, transience and vanity of the pleasures and achievement of people. It was meant depict a message of morality and repentance to the viewers. It used symbols like skulls and other objects of death to send a message of repentance and moral code to the people.
  5. Poussin introduced intellectual rigor to the impulse of the art and the unique reticent poetry to the French art during the Baroque period. He used gestures, design and color according to the theme at hard. His art was expression focused creating a memorable and enduring paints.
  6. The 800 hectares garden of land was landscaped in the classic French garden style. It was surrounded by woodland and the urban areas of Versailles in the east. It contains manicured lawns, flowers and fountain sculptures. The garden was designed during the times of Louis XIV as the official palace outside of Paris and maintains it shape to date.
  7. The noble people were prepared to do anything in order be close to king. The king had respect for royal tradition where he was to be accessible to his courtiers. The idea was to ensure that the noble people were controlled from plotting against the throne. The king had control over everything and was well informed by the spies in the army.
  8. The Stuarts dynasty was established by King James VI who replaced Elizabeth I. The king managed to end the long war with Spain as well as translation of the Bible. There was conflict between the king and parliament as the government cost and the wars raised greatly. The king had to bow to the demands of the MPs in order to raise cash. There major disagreements over religion between the puritan MPs and the catholic remnants.

Chapter 21

  1. Enlightenment is the radical change of communication, politics and science. The change brought about changes in authority traditions in Britain and France which included scientific discoveries, law amendments, numerous publication and revolutions that contributed to 19th century romanticism. Philosophers such as Sir Isaac Newton Galileo, Kepler and Leibniz contributed to the changes in mathematics science and philosophy. Locke, one of the philosophers noted that human beings were inconsistent and understanding was gained through experience. It also let to religious innovation which argued that the world determined its own path without mystical interventions. This contributed to the emergence of secret societies such as the freemasons, Rosicrucian’s and illuminati. Enlightenment has largely contributed to improvements in the living standards and reduction in health crisis hence high life expectancy rates.
  2. A debate took place at the French academy chaired by Mr. Perkins and the question was “Has Democracy failed”. Mr. Maffeo who was on the negative argued that democratic rights were not included in the country’s constitution. He also supported the idea of contentment and freedom. He also brought out the Fact that dominion and oligarchy had failed the government and termed United States as one of the most successful democratic state. Mr. Donlon on the affirmative side argued that social equity was through trial and error method which was slow. He also stated that social equity would allow manipulative politicians into power. After a long argument and vote by the audience the debate was won by Mr. Maffeo.
  3. The French revolution was contributed by the following factors High taxation that was the king had imposed on the commoners to repay the huge debts incurred during the war against the Great Britain which angered the common people. France was experiencing famine and the price of bread skyrocket and the people became hungry and started starving. Enlightenment was also a major contribution in the revolution as the social equality idea presented by the American revolution paved a way for a new government whereby people would rule instead of a king Weakness of the French French king was also a major contributor to the revolution as he was being forced to make reforms and this brought about conflicts between the king, commoners and the nobles.
  4. This was a feminine look that suggested the taste and social initiative as well as the cultural dominant of women during the Rococo. These were areas set up in Europe during the Rococo period that attracted wealthy, famous and accomplished people. They held conversations spiced with wit, repartee and deft matches.
  5. Natural art is based on true life style which depicts the nature and people with a minimum distortion and interpretation. It emerged in the 19th century in English landscape paintings before spreading to other parts of Europe. Natural art is influenced by aesthetics, culture and the subject of the artist. The artist perfectly paints the picture replicating the natural picture by ensuring that there is minimum distortions of the natural object.
  6. Grand manner portraiture was used to describe paintings that used visual metaphors at full length and size to depict the noble qualities. The settings and accessories are conveyed to dignify the status of the sitters in the paint.
  7. Clodion paintings were executed in several varieties of media. He painted sculptures which symbolized erotic pleasure commonly used in rococo style. His intoxication of wine that included nymph and satyr used the rococo decorative style. The seated bacchante playing with a child also used this style. The use of terra-cotta enabled him to use the contrasting values of flesh, fabric, hair and foliage.
  8. Majority of Watteau’s work used the lyrical charming style of Rococo. His work reflected the influence of the opera ballet and commedia dell’arte which used Rococo style of painting.
  9. It grow into popularity due to it simple, clear and the mode of quiet grandeur. The American thinkers had a lot interest in roman art and archaeological discoveries of the time. It was very economical to produce mass printing while the books and painting were affordable hence creating it popularity. Academies, publishers, museums and libraries also contributed greatly the spread of Neoclassicism at all levels of cultures. It also helped the Americans to define the ethics, politics artistic and academic ideals through classical allusions and authorities hence gaining its popularity. It represented all the aspect of the human life from learning to political thoughts.
  10. This was a trip taken by the youth elites of Britain across Europe to explore the horizons and learn about different languages, geography, art and cultures of different communities. It began in 16th century where young wealth tourists would spend years touring Europe. The tourists visited cities that were famous in culture such as Rome, Paris and Venice. Grand tour enhanced great improvement in British architecture and culture.

Chapter 22

  1. Positivism was a western philosophy that only considered the scientific data of experience based on their natural phenomena, features and relations while excluding metaphysical speculations. It affirmed that the knowledge regarding matter of fact were based on the positive data experience and that the facts were of pure logic and mathematics.
  2. Realists work defined reality by accurately depicting the lifeforms, perspective and the details of light and color. Realist work emphasized the mundane, ugly and sordid in their works of social realism, regionalism and sink realism.
  3. This was a movement that was opposed to the British royal academy dominance in moral subjects of and definitions of beauty derived from the classical art and the renaissance. It believed on the model of conveying nature and the human body. The movement believed that the industrial revolution resulted in many social and political ills that were worthy subjects for art. They believed that the modern life was renewable by artistic freedom, spiritualism and poetry.
  4. David championed the contour style, sculpted forms, history paintings as well as polished surfaces during the neoclassicism. His paintings were intended to be the moral exemplars for both the society and his students. His work mainly focused on the service of royalty and radical revolutionaries. Despite the change in political allegiance he still followed the tenets of the neoclassicism and passed to his students. The challenges faced in his style contributed to the redefinition of the history of painting in 1800.
  5. Picturesque is the kind of beauty agreeable in a picture. It emphasize on the picture to be smooth, regular, orderly and sublime. Landscape painting relates to the picturesque since it uses the characteristics of the land such as roughness to represent the land on a painting.
  6. Muybridge proved with his sequential photography that all four hooves of a horse leave the ground at once when it running. This after he successfully captured the picture of a horse in motion using a row of cameras with tripwires.
  7. Hudson River School was movement American of landscape painters who worked in the year 1825 to 1870. It drew it inspiration from the Catskill region in New York where Hudson River flows.
  8. Calotype was a photographic technique where a paper coated with silver chloride could be exposed to light and yield a negative image in a camera obscura.

Chapter 23

  1. Some of the momentous developments were industrialization which involved large scale manufacturing of goods during the industrial revolution. Urbanization was also major development which to development and growth of towns and cities across Europe and America. Economic and political interaction worldwide developed rapidly.
  2. Modern artist sought news ideas and ways of making art. They determined to new original visual language and representations. The artist aimed at reproducing scenes with a perfect level of accuracy by introducing new visual art technologies such a photography. Modern art was idealize the subject matter of the human, situation and nature.
  3. Charles Darwin had the idea that all animals on earth including human beings evolved from a common ancestry. His ideas contradicted both the biblical concept of creation as well as the Newton’s idea of logical universe in motion.

Marx communist manifesto called for workers to overthrow the capitalist system. He advocated for the creation of the socialist state where workers would seize power destroy capitalism. These ideas had a great influence to the work of art.

  1. This was the study of Japanese art as well as the artistic talent of their artists. The Japanese traditions of art such as metalwork, printmaking and painting was introduced to the west and it brought new ideas of composition, color and design.
  2. The independent art exhibition emerged when a group of artist were rejected the Salon which offered the opportunity for the artist to display and sell their work annually. Exhibitions were mounted on photography studio with artist hanging there work at the eye level.
  3. Realists considered their emotions and sensations when interpreting the world and focused more on building landscapes. This approach was considered boring by many artists who leaned toward symbolism. The artists adopted the subject approach where they communicated in signs and symbols that was associated with the Symbolism movement. The symbolist had a task to see the significance and the reality deeply than it appearance revealed.
  4. Impressionist Art used violet color in most of their paintings. The violet color was created by grazing cobalt and manganese violet pigments that were easily available to artists. They initially used grey to represent the shadow but later used green and purple for deepest shadows.
  5. It advocated the hope for the new beginning during the period of degeneration. The political culture idea and the geopolitics were “fin de siècle” themes. The political theme was the revolt against materialism, rationalism, and liberal democracy.
  6. The ideas of the art and craft movement was shaped by John Ruskin and William Morris. Ruskin evaluated the relationship between art, society and labor. Morris implemented the Ruskin’s philosophies by placing greater value on work and the natural beauty of materials. By 1880s the societies had taken up his ideas, presenting a unified approach among architects, painters and designers. This brought the ideas of the art and craft movement to the public.
  7. This style was aimed at creating an international style based on decorations. The designers and artist fashioned an art that was appropriate to the modern age. This art style was as a response to the technological progress in artwork such a cast iron during the industrial revolution. Artists aimed at working in harmony to create buildings, furniture, jewelry and clothes that followed the principal of Art Nouveau.

Chapter 24

  1. Automatism was a form of practice that streamed consciousness and gave the means to produce unconscious artwork. Romanticism this stressed on the power of imagination that could be found on the streets.
  2. He explored the internal necessity that compelling an artist to create a spiritual impulse as well as the admiration of the art by the audiences as a spiritual hunger. In this book he considered the capacity of color to communicate the artist spiritual and psychological concerns.
  3. The work visualized the Soviet social theory which included the communist emblem while expressing the progress of the revolution. The hammer and the sickle are replaced by the stethoscope and hair-drier indicating that the farmer left her partner to look for a more lucrative activities.
  4. Favored viewing fragmented subjects from different point of view. Represented objects as if they were visible all sides. They broke objects to their simplest forms
  5. The movement was a revolt against the beliefs of the pro-war society in Europe. It expressed the view that the war was folly. By the end of the war it was very popular in German cities for those who condemned the war.
  6. The Eight was a group of American painters who exhibited together once. The group was against the European aesthetics hence they were determined to create a Native American painting.
  7. It carries the intellectual and emotional sensibility alongside the fashion of beauty. It serves the utilitarian purposes. It also emphasis on the art of making money since currency serve a beautified functional object.
  8. New Deal programs supported artists by providing funding and federal recognition. Washington division of the Federal Theatre Project promoted theatre, photography and musical art.
  9. This was a movement of the American realist of modern art created paintings, lithographs and illustrations depicting realistic scenes of rural towns in the Midwest. The movement opposed the domination of the French art.
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