The Role of Vitamin D in Obesity

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The increasing incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Is one of the inflammatory pathways. Obesity and increased adipocyte enlargement and macrophages infiltration lead to an overproduction of inflammatory chemokines. Thus, the adipose tissues propagating an overall systemic inflammation associated with the development of obesity related comorbidities (Faloia et al., 2012, 1-7). Vitamin D as anti-inflammatory acts as a modulator of immune function and inflammation. It regulates the expression and production of the pro- inflammatory cytokines such as TNF -alpha. Vitamin D prevents the transcription of proinflammatory genes by the reduction of the inflammatory response macrophages induced in the adipocytes. Therefore, Vitamin D decreasing the primary proinflammatory molecules at human adipocytes. (Ding et al., 2013) The following biomarkers play an important role: Biomarkers Explanation Macrophages The macrophage infiltration into the adipose tissue leads to overproduction of Pro inflammatory factors such as LPS and IFN-y that increase adipose tissue inflammation. TNF alpha It is an inflammatory cytokine that is increased with obesity and decreased weight loss. The increase of TNF alpha promotes secretion of other inflammatory cytokines like adiponectin. Therefore, TNF alpha induces adipocytes apoptosis. (Wang & Trayhurn, 2006, 418-427) Nitric oxide (NO) production The NO production increased a low-grade inflammation in the adipocytokines. That is as due to obesity T cell function T- cell has a critical role in inducing inflammation. It is correlated with indices of adiposity in obese people. Part 2. Increased use of Vitamin D as an anti-inflammatory in regulating the inflammation in obesity people. It plays a significant role also in the biomarkers that increase the pro inflammatory factors. Some studies have shown that vitamin D supplementation is beneficial to obese subjects. An example of a double blind clinical trial in obese women that ran for 12 weeks indicates that vitamin D increased insulin sensitivity in the obese men. Vitamin D also led to an increase of weight loss in obese people due to the intake of the vitamin D. Vitamin D play a major role in adipose tissues and may be an adjuvant in treating of obesity. Therefore, an intake of Vitamin D shows a great role in adipose tissue and commordities in obese people. Thus, both treatment is warranted. An obese person can increase vitamin D in the following ways. 1.Consumption of restricted calorie diet and following an exercise program. The consumption of animal foods that have high concentration informs of 25(OH)D. 2. increasing sun exposure of Cutaneous synthesis by increasing exposure of sun in the obese individuals. This is due to increased body surface in obese people. It is expected increase in cutaneous Vitamin D synthesis. 3.Increasing dietary supplementary of the fortified foods. (Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, 2012)


B. Wang, P. Trayhurn. (2006). Acute and prolonged effects of TNF alpha on the expression and secretion of inflammation related adipokines by human adipocytes differentiated in culture. European journal of physiology. 452(4), 418- 427.

Ding C, Wilding JP, Bing C. (2013). 1.25 -dihydroxy vitamin D3 protects against macrophage induced activation of NF-kB and MAPK signaling in chemokines release in human adipocytes.

Faloia Emmanuela, Michetti Grazia, De Robertis Marco, Luconi Maria, Paola, Furlani Girogio and Boscaro Marco. (2012). Inflammation as a link between Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 1-7.

Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. (2010). Dietary reference intakes for calcium and Vitamin D. Washington DC. National academy press.

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