Types of walls

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The essential purpose of this paper is to write an essay about floors. In order to complete on this paper, I am going to talk about the construction phase and the distinction types of walls. Most of the modern constructions in the World today are made up of either trees or concrete. These are the main building elements.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Under this theme of the paper, I am going to discuss the requirements that are wished when it comes to building a floor. I will also describe about grounds or flooring that are supported or suspended by concrete slabs: In this case it is important to be aware the fact that there are grounds that are also supported by timber. Lastly, I will end the discussion by giving a clear elaboration on how floors are built so that they can be able to resist heat from passing through. Other minor topics of discussion are about upper floors that are made up of Concrete as well as timber upper floors. The difference of walls will also be elaborated on a large scale.

FUNCTIONAL NEEDS/REQUIREMENTS

Different floors have different requirements depending on the specification, however there are some requirements that can be said to be important and must be incorporated during the phase of construction (Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). The first requirement is that the floor ought to be stable and strong (Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). A strong floor depends on the materials that have been used, some of the materials that determine whether the floor is going to be strong or not include concrete, steel and timber. A building that is made up of no more than three storeys is mostly made up of floors that are made of timber while a building that can be seen to be overloaded has to build using concrete that is reinforced (Plunkett, 2015). This helps in giving the building support so that it cannot come down easily; it also becomes much more resistant to fire. The best way to ensure that the floor is stable is by ensuring that it is built on a surface that is horizontal. It ought to be stiff in nature to allow the support of people, machinery and furniture.

Floors ought to be constructed in a way that they are resistant moisture that comes from the ground and weather (Riley & Cotgrave, 2014). They should also be built in a way that they can be able to resist sound and heat from passing through. When it comes to heat, floors ought to be designed in a way that the air temperatures are different in the opposite floor sides(Riley & Cotgrave, 2014). The passage of sound between different floors can be regulated by building floors that are made up of concrete; it is important note the fact that timber floors are very poor when it comes to the regulation of sound. A good floor that is built by experts during the construction phase ought to stand out for a very long time, very little maintenance is required when it comes to the process of repairing it(Plunkett, 2015). Floors that are suspended ought to build in a way that they can be able to resist fire for a lengthy amount of time. The main essence of building floors that are resistant to fire is to ensure that there is enough time for the occupants of the house to escape.

CONSTRUCTION OF GROUNDS OR FLOORS THAT ARE SUPPORTED BY CONCRETE SLAB

When building walls, it is advised to start with building the internal and external walls with a foundation that is made up of concrete until it reaches the damp – proof course level(Riley & Cotgrave, 2014). From here, the concrete slab and hardcore part are evenly spread. The Hardcore part of the floor is made up materials which include bricks that are graded and crushed together. The main essence of putting this bricks together is to ensure that a stable horizontal surface is achieved. In most cases the hardcore bed is normally between 100 – 300 mm deep(Riley & Cotgrave, 2014). Other materials that are used in the formation of the hardcore part of the floor include chalk, hard rock that has been crushed into small pieces, tile and brick rubble as well as gravel.

The Blinding layer ranges about 50mm and is normally placed before the Concrete has been laid(Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). The main purpose of this layer is to prevent concrete that is wet from running down, it also helps in the formation of a bed that is smooth in nature. The Damp proof membrane which is also known as the DPC is important in the sense that is helps to regulate the passage of moisture. This type of membrane can be seen to be permeable to moisture(Plunkett, 2015). Different materials are used when it comes to construction for the DPM; most of the materials that are used ought to be impermeable. Water that is both in vapour and liquid form should not be able to penetrate. The most common material that is commonly used as a DPM is polythene bags or sheets. The figure below can be used to give a clear illustration of how these sheets are used when it comes to the construction of floors.

CONSTRUCTION OF CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS THAT ARE SUSPENDED

It is important to note the fact that suspended concrete slabs are normally built in situations where the ground has very many slopes, uncertain or poor capacity in the bearing and is liable to changes in volume(Riley & Cotgrave, 2014). Changes in volume refer to the fact that the ground keeps on shrinking and swelling: It does not maintain a rough or specific shape or area covered. In such cases, floors are constructed by reinforcing a beam floor or a block that is supported by internal and external walls that are Loadbearing. These walls have to be independent from the ground. There are at least three main methods that can be used in the construction of suspended concrete floors: They include the use of beam and block systems, use of reinforced slabs or planks that are precast and reinforced In Situ concrete slabs(Plunkett, 2015). After building the floor, the surface can be decorated with different finishing materials such as tiles.

The type of floor surface to be used depends on the use of the building. A good example that can be used to explain this fact is that tiles may only be used at homes or offices but not in areas such as garages and workshops(Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). These types of structures or buildings require a floor that is made up of the SFF. After construction, in case the floors are not given a proper finish, they are likely to wear out with time. Floor screeds are very important during the process of constructing walls; they serve to ensure that the floor is levelled on a flat surface so that the process of finishing on the floor becomes easy. Other types of screeds that are used during the construction process include the Bonded, semi – bonded and independent screeds(Riley & Cotgrave, 2014). The independent screed is also known as the unbounded screed and it is normally laid out in cases where there is a DPM that is impermeable, it helps to restrain the shrinking of the screed. The figures below can be used in interpreting some of the various types of screeds that are used in the Construction process.

CONSTRUCTION OF SUSPENDED GROUND FLOORS THAT ARE MADE UP OF TIMBER

These types of floors are made from a ground floor that is suspended with timber. In this case sleeper walls that are a half B thick are directly built from the concrete site, the distance between this two positions is roughly around 1.8 m. These types of walls can be built to a level that is almost 600mm high, they are built in a way that they can be able to allow the circulation of air below and inside the floor(Plunkett, 2015). During the process of constructing floors, ventilation has to be checked on keenly. The process of ventilating these floors is very easy; the most common method that is used when involves insertion of bricks. These bricks ought to be made from either plastic or terracotta, these types of bricks is important in the sense that they help to prevent the stagnation of ait as well as the possibility of rot from developing under on the ground floor. It is important to note the fact this bricks have to be in specific dimensions to ensure maximum ventilation. The most common brick dimensions that are used in the construction of most buildings are 215 * 65, 215 * 140 or 215 * 215(Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). The figures below clearly illustrate how the bricks are used during the floor construction process.

Wall plates are also important when it comes to the construction of floors. A wall plate can be defined as a piece of timber that normally rests specifically on the wall length. This plate serves different functions which include creation of a surface or level where the roof and floor joists can easily be nailed on. Different wall plates have different dimensions depending on the length of the wall however the minimum requirements or dimensions are normally 100 * 75 mm(Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). During the process of construction, it is important to note the fact that the DPC is normally laid on the sleeper walls immediately under the plate. This helps to prevent any moisture from rising from the walls to the floor that is made from timber. The surface of the floor in this case has boards that are made up of dimensions that are 16, 19, 21 and 28 mm thick and 65, 90, 113 and 137 mm wide(Plunkett, 2015). Most of them are normally 5 m in length.

CONSTRUCTION OF FLOORS THAT ARE RESISTANT TO THE PASSAGE OF HEAT

It is very important to construct floors that are resistant to the flow or passage of heat. In order to achieve this, a number of activities can be laid. Some of the methods or ways through which heat can be minimised is by using edge insulation(Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). This type of method should be used in areas where the insulation of the wall is not carried down until the ground floor. The most important method or procedure that can be used in achieving values of insulation is by adding a layer that is made up of insulation that is rigid(Plunkett, 2015). This type of layer has a high resistance to thermal heat. The diagram below clearly shows how this process of resisting heat can be implemented.

Insulation of the under floor has to be given a lot of consideration, different materials are normally used during this process of insulating the roof and floor. Some of these materials that are used in the insulation process include glass that is cellular, polystyrene that is extruded in nature, mineral slabs of wood and boards that are made up using polyurethane foam (Riley & Cotgrave, 2014). The type of material that is going to be used during the process of insulation depends on the thickness and wideness of the floor, roof or wall.

CONSTRUCTION OF UPPER FLOORS THAT ARE MADE OF CONCRETE

This are the best types of floors, they are constructed by reinforcing concrete types of floors(Lawson & Ogden & Goodier, 2014). These are the best types of since they have a better chance than the other types of floor when it comes to resisting fire. Based on tests and data, it has been proven that these walls can be able to resist fire for a lengthy period of the. Most of the modern buildings in different parts of the World are constructed using these types of floor(Plunkett, 2015). The figures below may be used to explain how the process of insulation goes about.

Most of this floors that are made up of concrete cannot be damaged easily with fire, this concrete walls are made of blocks of clay. Generally, based on science, Clay is a poor conductor of heat(Riley & Cotgrave, 2014). In this sense it is safe to say the fact that in the event of an outbreak of fire, the floors will not catch fire easily. Generally, the floor beams must be incorporated together with clay. It is important to not the fact that hollow beams are important in the sense that they are a goof resistant to fire. The process of constructing such floors is very difficult and requires a lot it time and patience, during the construction process, the floor has to be given support that is temporary by using steel or timber(Plunkett, 2015). The diagram below gives a brief illustration of the process involved in building concrete floors., the dimensions for each material that is used in the process of construction is also outlined.

CONSTRUCTION OF TIMBER UPPER FLOORS

Floors that are made of timber are normally supported by joists that are made up of timber. Mostly these joists are normally 38 and 75mm thick and are about 75 – 235 mm deep(Plunkett, 2015). Double floors in this case are hard to construct, the most important fact to note when constructing this type of floor is that it involves the combination of the joists and beams. The position of joists is normally maintained by fixing or using timber strutting(Plunkett, 2015). The diagram used below is a brief summary of the process that is involved in the construction of this type of floor.

References

Plunkett, D. (2015). Construction and detailing for interior design.

Riley, M., & Cotgrave, A. (2014). Construction technology 2: Industrial and commercial building. Palgrave Macmillan.

Lawson, M., Ogden, R., & Goodier, C. (2014). Design in modular construction. CRC Press.

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