What are Gene, DNA, RNA, and Proteins?

High School ・Biology ・MLA

Made up of DNA bases with various sizes ranging from hundreds to million, Genes are the physical and functional unit of heredity. An individual has two copies of genes that are gotten from both parents. Most genes are similar in everyone but the allele causes differences and uniqueness in physical characteristics.


DNA is the material in the body that is responsible for heredity and can be located in almost all organisms with cells. In humans, the DNA is the same in all the cells. Nuclear DNA can be located in the nucleus while the mitochondria DNA is found in the mitochondria. Information in the DNA is stored as chemical bases; this includes cytosine, adenine, guanine, and thymine. The information available for building and maintaining an organism is determined by the order and sequence of the DNA.


Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule containing nucleotides. Likely DNA, RNA is made up of a base, a phosphate, and a ribose. RNA and DNA nucleotides are similar in structure except that the ribose sugar in RNA contains a hydroxyl group (-OH).


They are complex substances that are formed from chains amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Proteins include biological compounds like hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.
The Relationship between Gene, DNA, RNA, and Protein
Genes contain information that determines how the cells put together the building blocks in every protein. The mRNA connects the nucleus with the ribosomes. Once the mRNA reaches the ribosomes, the ribosomes read the nucleotides in the mRNA code and use the instructions to form the chains of amino acids which attach together to form amino acids. RNA is formed from DNA through transcription of RNA. DNAs are responsible for transportation and formation of proteins.

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