About Change Management

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For the functional transformation of an organization, many techniques of change control must be adopted for the engineering of shifts in several of the models, including the life cycle model and the system contingency model. The congruence model is also known as contingency schemes. The congruence model was first used by Fred Fiedler. Fred Fielder discusses this model. There is no excellent way to manage an organization, but there are many ways that any given corporation can lead, organize and ultimately be profitable. Due to the lack of an exceptional way to run an organization, there is a need for every agency to come up with a professional way of making decisions according to organizational situations and their Inner and outside environments. The Congruence Model is made up of three phases; input phase, transformation phase and the output phase.

Input Phase - the needs of the customers are collected. After the collection of the customers' needs and requirements, an overview of how to initiate the change starts to form.
Transformation Phase - in this phase the needs of the customers gathered in the first step are consumed to create the required outcome for the customer. It is at this stage where environmental influences are also considered.
Output - This is the last stage of the congruence model. During this phase whatever is produced is served to the customer for the approval. It is at this stage when the suppliers of the products services and the customers establish a partnership. The partnership between the customer and the delivery can either be at the stage where the suppliers of the product services and the customer form partnership. The Partnership between the customer and deliver can either be at the organizational group level or the individual level.

Difference between a learning organization on and a traditional structure

A learning organization is differently defined as follows, Peter M. Senge in his book, "The Fifth Discipline". The art and practice of the Learning Organization," A learning organization is a place where people repetitively expand their ability to form the feedback they desire, where new patterns of imagination are fostered, and group motivation set free to people learn how to learn. A learning organization is an organization that requires special abilities in making acquiring and passing knowledge and aims at changing its behavior. Roberts Kleiner, Ross and Smith define learning organization as the recurring texting of experience and the ability to transform the experience into knowledge. That is relevant to the organization and meets the primary purpose.
Generally, a learning organization refers to the organization that acquires knowledge, nurture and apply it successfully to assist the organization adapt to change. A learning Organization always aims at coming up with new approaches on how to acquire new skills, knowledge and how to develop other cultural norms. A Learning Organization is based on the culture that learning is mainly aimed at success and efficiency. A Learning organization is characterized by the way through which an organization can drop and stop using the previously learnt behaviours and acquire another new framework of cognition. A learning organization has three main systematic approaches which are tracing organizational behavior management and discipline. It aims at how the knowledge created and acquired can be successfully being applied to someone's activities. Also, a learning organization can perform the following primary operations which include; systematic problem-solving, experimentation, learning from past experiences, Learning from others and transferring knowledge.

Characteristics of a Learning Organization

A Learning Organization is characterized by Openness, innovation and strategic orientation. Learning Organization needs to be free and open to allow questions of enquiry and allow being criticized and debated creativity. Innovation and Creativity refer to the introduction of something new and involves the change in customs, rites or any change that is affected by the introduction of something new and different. A learning Organization has a habit that allows it to develop with a lot of speed. Strategic Orientation is concerned with the responsibility of caring both for the organization's customers and its stockholders. However, apart from the above general characteristics a learning Organization Senge who made learning organization be a popular term characterizes it as follows;
Systems Thinking- It involves thinking about and the terminology to be sued to describe and understand forces and connections that form the behavior of the organization.
Personal Mastery- a Learning Organization is characterized by forming a system environment that motivates and supports all organizational members to develop themselves and achieve the objectives.
Shared vision – A Learning Organization makes progress in sharing future and leading principals and practices. It does this through creating a sight of dedication and commitment among the members in the organization.
Mental Models: A Learning Organization Involves changing behavioral, and an organization can improve reliability to be more than the ability of an individual member.
Team Learning: A Learning Organization involves changing behavioral and organization group thinking skills. As a result, people in an organization can reliably create their capacity of mind making their ability be more than the ability of an individual member.

The difference between traditional and learning organization

In a learning Organization, there can be the emergence of a group vision from several places however the highest manager remains in charge of the fostering of the concept while in a traditional organization perception vision is mainly produced by the higher management rather than many sources. In a Learning Organization development of ideas and their engineering in the Organization can happen at any level of the system compared to a traditional organization where all the ideas that are implemented are formed by the top management. In a learning organization, the leader is supposed to create and develop a shared vision, give power to other People, encourage motivation and commitments and also inspire efficiency and making of decisions as his or her role. In the traditional organization, the leader's role includes creating the vision of the system, give rewards and induce punishment appropriately. The leader also leads all the activities of the Organizational employees.
In a learning organization, the forms of conflict resolution in case of disagreements in a company include collaborative learning, making a whole or integrating the different viewpoints of personnel while in the traditional organization every employee has a responsibility of his/her job. In a traditional organization, no one is concerned with another person's position since it aims at creating personal ability and skills.

How to Develop the learning organization

To develop a learning organization, three goals have to be followed, This process Include, first of all, those who lead and manage others in the system most form a chance and give room for a room for learning to take place. Secondly, those in leadership and Management must nurture the suitable and worth norms and behavior. Lastly the leaders and Managers must individually guide the way of discussion, come up with enquiries, listen keenly and also come up with an answer.

Woolner’s 5-Stage Model

The Woolners five stage Model include:
Forming the Organization- This is the first stage of the 5 stage model. It involves the creation and coming up of a system organization. During this process of creating an organization, we learn using trial and error.
Developing the Organization- After creating and coming up with an organization, start to consolidate ideal of the business products can begin to set up an organized and well-structured manner. It also involves anticipating of learning conditions by learning together with the outside environment.
The Mature Organization- This stage involves coming up with a clear understanding of the requirement of the learning of employee. After understanding the employee needs for education, you start to give personal training.
Adapting Organization- At this stage learning process starts to be one of the strategic plans. For a long-term growth of an organization at either personnel level, group level or organizational levels, learning becomes necessary.
Learning Organization- After adapting organization, learning now starts being one of the everyday company activities. Learning becomes more necessary in the organization and is seen as one of the health success of the organization. Learning Organization promotes learning both formally and informally.

The Hope Hailey and Balogun

The Balogun and Hope Hailey's Model is used as a form of bringing together and making a code of the considerable range of context information and engineering options that need to be considered during the change. It is a tool used for interpreting the nature of change, and it is less of a method and more o a model. This model has an exhaustive framework that deals with all the factors. The Balogun and Hope-Hailey's Model consists of Horizontal Axis and Vertical Axis. The Horizontal Axis is made up of the End Result that includes the Transformation and realignment while the vertical Axis is made up of nature of Change, incremental and the big bang.

The Model’s Four Strategies

Evolution - The strategy lays down the proceeding in an advance manner by resolving both the inner and the outer environments as it practices the change in the organization. Therefore this occurs when change is incremental while the transformation is the result.
Adaptation - When the change is also increasing, and the end feedback is realignment, this model is also the most used.
Revolution - When the change is a big bang and transmutation. This includes an organization bought by another leading company, and leading business that buys requires the current leaders and managers to make change the overview and mission. It also restores more than a half of the workforce.
Reconstruction - This is when the change is a big bang connected with the realignment.
The system can have an experience of disorder in a significant expansion, and the essential model of business may remain intact.

The Steps of the action research model that can be applied to the change process

The main points in the action research include the problem, the client and the action. The actions research encompass the problem, the client and the effect. The Action Research Model assists the organization to initiate the required change by practising the change programs that are successful. For an Organization to continue being competitive and growing there is a need for change. For other effectiveness and sustainability of a system, there is need of being ready to introduce, expect and give a positive response to change.
Action research assists the client to get engaged in the process of learning, actively, finding a problem and solving the problem.
Moreover, action research needs clients of change who can act as a means of transmission for delegating and giving feedback, to be centered on taking responsibilities and information to communicate data efficiently. The data is transformed from being a written report. Instead, it is recommended in joint open sessions. After that, the client and the agent of change interact, and they point out and rank, the problems in a unique way, /find the cause of the issues and they also use realistic and practical ways in creating plans to manage with them. The focus and aim of the action research are putting information into action. Action Research includes the following stages.

STAGE 1:Involves a sequence of planning actions that are introduced by the customers and the change agent starts the opening of the research of the problem and speculates the appearance.
STAGE 2: This stage involves the real action of the. It can also be referred to as the transformation phase. At this step, the interaction and participation of the entire active participant are needed.
STAGE 3:This step is called the output of the feedback phase. It is also the final stage. There is the provision of findings at this stage. The results are also analyzed at this stage. It is at this stage where the conclusion and reflection are made.
In conclusion the use of action research in the model in a change process leads to the demonstration of better skills as conflict mediators, meeting planner, problem counsellors and process owners. By the OD practitioners who pass their knowledge to the system in data collection.

KOTTER's 8–STAGE MODEL

The 8-step change Model of John Kotter. Consist of eight steps. This eight steps change model helps managers to deal with change development and is a big beginning point for creating strategies of change for any Organization. The Kotter's eight steps include: Establishing a sense of urgency, forming a guiding coalition developing a vision and plan to communicate the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains to produce more change and lastly anchoring change in the system culture.
Step One: Creating a sense of urgency
Before beginning the process of change, the people in the Organization have to be aware that there is a need for change at that time therefore, for people to be motivated at the level of the success of change, they first have to realize the sense of urgency. In this scenario, there is need of first establishing a sense of urgency before the change.

Step Two: Creating a Guiding Coalition
At this stage, come up with a group of leaders /guides who will represent the whole system. The team chosen as leaders should be experts who can influence the necessities and bring the ability to the change.

Step Three: Developing the Change Vision
The perception and plans of the change should be well centered.
The Plans should also be accurate, desirable and able to be achieved. Furthermore they should even have an ease into communicating to others.

Step Four: Communicating the Vision of Change
This step involves coming up with a conversation that can be understood quickly, that is open clear and can be shamed with a lot of ease. At this level, you need to communicate with the goal of finding out buy-in-from your listener.

Step five: Empower others to act broad Based Action
First, find out the obstacles that can hinder the change and put down strategies to overcome the approach immediately. Some of the challenges can be the structure of the system, the skillsets of the employees, the resistance to change by some individuals in the organization.

Step six: creating quick wins; short-term wins;
The creation of rapid gains will help to come up with motion. The short-term wins also discourage the resistance among the resistance group.

Step seven; consolidate gains to produce more change;
Continue to push the change by maintaining the urgency up. In case of recurring of the resistance to change, don't give up instead encourage the employees in the organization and aim at the vision of planning by leadership.

Step eight; anchor change in the system culture
This is the last step where there is a need for an infusion of change in the corporate culture. The change should be maintained to make the employee look at it as one of the organizational cultures. The change should be seen as a benefit by the organizational employees.

The five pillars of sustainable change

There are five pillars of lasting change that can be applied to sustain the learning organization environment of any company. These Pillars put together; they enable to determine if a system can change. These Pillars include Leadership, Culture and Structure, Strategy and systems. For a change to be successful in any organization, there must be the role of these pillars. The Pillars enables a company to sustain in as follows.
Pillar 1; Leadership
The beginning of any successful change starts with dynamic leaders who can explain a vision and encourage the people in the Organization to support it. A change in the company can be made satisfactory by leaders who can state the clear view and make sure that people in the system get a clear understanding of it. The leaders also propel the Organization employees to move towards the change and discourage resistance.
Pillar 2; Strategy
It involves the plans put forward on how the change is going to take place. For the changes to sustain and bee established in the organizational culture, there is the need for effective plans.
Pillar 3; Culture
It involves the maintenance of an environment that is best for growth. It requires the transition of situations, the people in the system and the central beliefs that cooperate to come up with an organization. Culture is influenced by both vision and strategy.
If the culture of an Organization accepts risks, then this leads to welcome changes that are long-term while if the perception of a system resists danger, then changes will be less likely put in action only after they have been practised.
Pillar 4; Structure
A change initiative is also affected by the shape of a system. Before initiating change, a company should look at its organizational structure and decide on how to adjust change plans together with the skills and restrictions of the structure.
Pillar 5; System
This is the final pillar in the pillars of sustainable change.
A pleasant change is estimated through having n overview of the ways through which a system functions well as a whole.
The system involves the ways through which the Organization does its operation. This means that systems deal with how the Sub-branches of an Organization are combined to work as a whole.

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