Australia and New Zealand

Freshman (College 1st year) ・Geography ・MLA ・2 Sources

New Zealand and Australia have a wide variety of vegetation that is found nowhere else on the planet. Australia, in particular, is unique in that it is both a nation and an island, as well as the world's smallest continent. It has features that no other landmass on the planet has, making it one-of-a-kind. Australia, on the other hand, has a vast mainland and Tasmania Island to the south. The main geographical area of New Zealand is made up of two significant islands separated by the Tasman Sea, which is located to the south of Australia. Several islands surround Australia with the Indian Ocean covering the south coast and the western rim (Buckland p.32). Papua New Guinea and Indonesia covers the location to the north separated by the Arafura Sea and the Timor Sea. The Cape York is distinguished by the Gulf of Carpentaria extending northern along the eastern coast of Australia reaching almost to the Papua New Guinea. The Great Barrier Reef that extends to over 1,600 miles off the northeastern continent shores. The Coral Sea separates the South Pacific and the Great Barrier Reef. To the Southern side of the New Zealand and the Australia is the Antarctica (Buckland p.32). The Physical geography of these two countries is unique and distinct. New Zealand is mountainous and receives good amount of rainfall while Australia is comparatively flat with a widespread dry land as well as highland of low elevation.

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Geographical Isolation of the two Countries

The historical isolation of the Australia and New Zealand from other parts of the world has enhanced the thriving of the organism as well as other animals not existing in other parts of the world in these two countries (Buckland p.32). The two countries have unique biodiversity that consists of the Marsupials-animals raising their young ones in the pouch, like the wallabies, kangaroos, bandicoots, and koalas. Scientist believed that these creatures come up separately when the continent broke and moved away from each other hundreds of million years ago. Similarly to animals, plants are as well unique to the realm. Biographers have also shown that the biodiversity of these two countries is different from the one found in Asia (Buckland p.32).


Human beings before the colonialism error occupied both Australia and New Zealand. Forty thousand years ago history indicates that the Aboriginal people migrated from the main land of southeast Asia across to Australia. They settled in Australia and quickly adapted to the physical geographical condition of their new continent. Before the arrival of the Europeans, the indigenous developed their culture and carved out their existence in that country (Cant & Garth, pp. 13). On the other hand, a Polynesian group of people inhabited the New Zealand and in particular the Maori people who occupied the islands and established their culture and ways of life before the arrival of the Europeans. European inversion changes the lives of the indigenous negatively. Their lands were grabbed, killer diseases were introduced leading to loss of so many lives, and control over their daily lives and livelihoods were taken away from them. Maori put up the long fight against the British colonialism, but the great military weapons and power overpowered them. Currently, their number is very small, making up less than ten percent of the total population (Cant & Garth, pp. 14).

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Urbanization, Population, and the Core-Periphery Spatial Relationship

Politically, Australia is categorized into two territories and six states. The states are Western Australia, South Australia, Australia Capital Territory, New South Wales, and the Queensland. Protectorate of Australian consists of numerous small islands that surround Australia. Core areas of Australia are ideal for inhabiting larger human population. Locating the core population areas in Australia, one has to determine the temperate Type C climates simply. Two core regions exist in Australia; one core area location is to the west, attached to the city of Perth. However, the majority of the people in Australia live along the coast which is the largest core region. The largest core region extends from Brisbane to Adelaide and is where the majority of the Australia population exist. English is the vastly spoken language of the Australians as the indigenous language is on a wedge of dying (Cant & Garth, pp. 16).

Economic Geography

Australia has the best food production or agricultural capabilities. The mineral base of this country is excellent as compared to other countries. The minerals are well distributed all over Australia, and different minerals can be found various parts of the country. The region to the east of the New South Wales and the Queensland has rich coal deposits (Buckland p.32-32). Other minerals like the copper, silver, zinc, gold, nickel, and tungsten among others are in plenty deposit in various parts of the country, Tasmania included. In the north-western coast, waters exist gas and oil field deposits as well as in the Tasman Sea at the east of Melbourne. Australia is self-reliant on in natural gas however it imports some petroleum products.

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Works Cited

Buckland, J. F. "Australia, New Zealand and the South-West Pacific." New Zealand Journal of Geography, vol. 50. 2008, pp.32-32.

Cant, Garth. "The South Pacific: Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands – Insights into the Theory and Praxis of Indigenous Entrepreneurship." International Handbook of Research on Indigenous Entrepreneurship, vol. 21, 2012, pp. 12-16

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