Decision Making Process in the Army

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The main aim of the army commanders and NCO staffs is the execution of military operations which will aim at success. Integration of ‘troop leading procedures’ and ‘military decision-making process’ in mission planning enhances the formulation of mission layouts and procedures essential to execute successful operations. Military commanders play importantl parts in military operations by giving out orders that controls the steps taken during the whole process. For successful missions, there must be cooperation between commanders and the junior staffs to make sure there's proper coordination of activities and troops.


In the military,for successful operations to be certain, decision-making is regarded as an essential tool for successful operations. According to this context, decision-making is regarded as the effective selection of optimal alternatives from list of available alternatives. It helps in using the available alternatives carry out operations during emergencies, predict event outcomes to achieve the desired results, and reduces the chances of disruptions to military operations. In the military, successful completion of missions is attributed to the effective decision-making process. Therefore, military commanders and officers in have the responsibility of understanding the situation at hand, evaluating the challenges and available solutions before making the decisions. Decision-making is one of the challenges that military commanders and military staff face during their operations. In most cases, military doctrines offer the best alternatives to address the challenges since they enhance deeper understanding of the problems at hand.

How NCO Staff can Anticipate Outcomes of Current Operations to Develop Concepts for Follow on Missions.

The ability to anticipate the outcomes of a mission is very crucial for carrying out successful operations. NCO staffs have to utilize models that can help in outlining the operation steps and outcomes. Different models have been developed to help to understand the situations, formulate the necessary steps, and predict the possible outcomes (Goztepe & Kahraman, 2015). They include rational approach models and the cognitive approach models. The models help in solution identification from the available list of alternatives.

Cognitive Approach Model- NCO staff can utilize this model to identify problems and their solutions by using cognitive thoughts. This model emphasizes the adoption of solution alternatives that effectively solve the underlying problems and readjustment of alternatives that do not offer the solutions. The following steps are involved in the model:

The top commander initiates the need to make a decision. The NCO staff team studies and analyze the various factors influencing the mission and draws possible operation methods. The staff then develops action methods in line with instructions and the identified factors. Possible techniques adopted by the enemies and the outcomes of the operations are predicted by the use of ‘Staging of the war’ game (Goztepe & Kahraman, 2015). Mission plans and commands developed based on the possible outcomes. Any failure to achieve the desired outcomes leads to the repeating the whole process. Staging of the war game helps NCO staff to use their cognitive abilities to interpret the instructions given from the commander to predict possible outcomes of an operation.

 Rational Approach Model- This model outlines various analytical steps that help in evaluating the merits and demerits of every option considered during the decision-making process. It involves the analysis of the problem at hand, provides solution suggestions to the problem, and provide an in-depth assessment of the alternatives. Assessments enable NCO staffs to select the most effective methods for the mission or operations. 

Based on the two models, NCO staff can interpret, asses, and come up with alternative methods of implementing the directives or instructions given by the military commander. From the orders and directives given by the commander, NCO staff can anticipate the expectations and possible mission outcomes.

Essential Characteristics of NCO Staff

Execution of military operations requires personalities who can deliver set targets under short deadlines and in various work conditions (Fischer, 2013). NCO staff needs to be very proactive, critical thinkers, and problem solvers. Since military duties involve a lot of instructions and directives, staff NCO good listeners and obedient to their superiors. Disobedience and poor listening skills can cause the whole team a lot since failure to follow the given instructions or directives may give opponents or enemies a good avenue to strike back. Effective execution of operation plans and commands heavily relies on the actions of the NCO staff; therefore, they must be very honest and trustworthy. In fact, being an NCO requires more than the stated characteristics above, a high degree of professionalism must be displayed in every action undertaken by the NCO staffs (Goztepe & Kahraman, 2015). In addition to being obedient, trustworthy, and good listeners, NCO staff, must ensure demonstration perfection in their work. Military operations are not based on trial and errors. Thus, an individual must perform his/ her role perfectly. Moreover, staff officers must be team players, very flexible, and highly adaptable to varying conditions. They must be communicating very effectively and very loyal to the people under authority. Any form of negligence creates a loophole for the enemies to strike. This may not only fail the mission but makes the team vulnerable to the enemies.

Mission Planning and Execution Steps

Planning and execution of a mission is a systematic process that requires the active participation of both the military commanders and the NCO staffs. The steps involved in the whole process are described as follows;

The initial stage involves the superiors giving out orders and directives to their juniors. Such directives may come from the headquarters or people of higher ranks (Davis & Peterson, 2013). NCO staff takes their time and analyze the content of the directives by trying to come up with goals and aims of the mission.

After gaining a better understanding of the core objectives, they prepare the battlefield with the aim of analyzing the environment in which the enemy operates. All the decisions alternatives are evaluated, and the best methods or techniques are arrived at. The team then formulates a systematic order of performing tasks to accomplish the mission. Necessary adjustments are made at this stage to ensure the success of the mission is achieved (Fischer, 2013).

Resources needed for the mission are inspected to determine their availability so that necessary adjustments are made in time. In addition, risk assessment is performed, facts and assumptions verified, to ensure the preparations meet the mission requirements.

Pre-visiting training is carried out to offer insights on the possible areas of improvement. Consequently, time and resource planning are adjusted based on the initial training and assessments. Reports on mission analysis are availed to enable the military to be psychologically prepared (Fischer, 2013).

The commander provides important instructions and mission guidelines. Moreover, he/she examines the realities and suggests possible adjustments that can be put in place in case the unexpected occur (Davis & Peterson, 2013). Lastly, each member of the team takes his or her roles and responsibilities, and the mission is carried out.

Importance and Impact of Step 8 of TLP

Operation planning and preparations involve the adoption of TLP. To carry out successful mission operations, there must be proper supervision of the whole process. Step 8 of TLP focuses on proper supervision of mission operations to ensure corrective measures are taken immediately to avoid any interruption to the planned operation steps and techniques adopted (Davis & Peterson, 2013). Furthermore, step 8 of TLP ensures that the whole process is effectively carried out and the challenges met are dealt with through quick adjustments to the strategies and resource planning. Therefore, “Troop Leading Procedure,” TLP is a crucial element of the “Military Decision Making Process,” MDMP .

Roles and Responsibilities of G & S Staffs

Different categories of G and S staffs have varied roles in a military team. However, G and S staff of the same rank shares roles and responsibilities. Their roles are as follows:

S1 and G1 are responsible for recruitment and selection of the military staff. This category of staff deals with human resource issues in the military. S2 and G2 staffs deal with issues related to intelligence. They provide important information that is used to track subversive individuals.

Training and general operation within the military lies with G3 and S3 staffs while the G4 and S4 are responsible for logistical issues (overall planning and execution of missions). G5 and S5 staffs’ roles are civil and military operations while G6 and S6 are tasked with signal operations.  


Military commanders play a crucial role in military missions by directing their troops and overseeing the whole mission process. The existence of understanding between commanders and junior staff about the mission goals and objectives helps in the launching of successful operations. NCO staffs must possess some attributes like honesty, obedience, flexibility, attention to detail, analytical, among many other attributes. Although different G and S staff performs varied roles, coordination between different departments can lead to successful military missions.


Davis Jr, G. B., & Peterson, J. D. (2013). America's Army-Our Profession. Army Combined Arms Center Fort Leavenworth Ks Military Review.

Fischer, C. (2013). General Douglas MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition, Command and General Staff College 2012 Award Winning Essays. Army Combined Arms Center Fort Leavenworth Ks.

Goztepe, K., & Kahraman, C. (2015, March). A new approach to military decision making process: suggestions from MCDM point of view. In International Conference on Military and Security Studies, İstanbul, Turkey (pp. 118-122).

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