Higher Education System in America

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Higher education in the United States has been a cause for concern over the recent previous due to apparent ineffectiveness and stagnation. The state of affairs has improved drastically since the Second World War but it has come at a price; increasing lessons costs. As such, it is up to all stakeholders to work together to ensure that the situation is rectified thru avenues such as legislation and even the enhancement of the capacity and effectiveness of community faculties across the United States. This would help solve the hassle of high tuition costs which threatens to cripple the education sector.

The State of Affairs in Higher Education


A diverse student and faculty population has been recognized as essential to teaching and preparing students for the truly diverse world in which we live. In a report, by the American Council on Education and the American Association of University Professors (15, 40) a couple of matters are clear regarding the subject. First, “Faculty members believe that diversity helps all students achieve the essential goals of a college education and that white students suffer no adverse effects from classroom diversity” (15). Secondly, most selective colleges recognize the need for diversity to fulfill their academic mission since they have some of the lowest diversity scores at present (40).

US News and the World Report published a diversity score for each college/university. The categories used for the calculations are black or African-American, Hispanic, Native American, Asian, Pacific Islander, White (non-Hispanic) and multiracial. The formula produces a diversity index that ranges from 0 to 1. The closer a school's number is to 1, the more diverse the student population. Diversity indexes help students to quantitative look at a college’s ability to achieve diversity and help colleges to quantify their success. Diversity is changing, according to the Pew Research Center, since 1965 the Asian and Hispanic population have grown while the Black population has been stable and the White population has decreased. By 2055 the US distribution of ethnic races will be such that we will have achieved population diversity.

In the table below, the National Center for Educational Statistics reports that the trend in US colleges is similar to that of the general population.










Percentage distribution

























Asian/Pacific Islander








American Indian Alaska Native








Nonresident alien








Our population just becomes more diverse every single year, yet no one has addressed the issue especially in the context of education. Failure to adjust accordingly could increase divisions and discontent based on the segregation around the country. It is always important to realize that increased racial diversity in higher education will have a positive impact on the society in the long run due to the improvement of inter- group relations.


The wage gap is a highly controversial topic in politics, but it is not typically discussed in conjunction with education. According to a Hechinger Report article by Mikail Zinshteyn, “women earn more college degrees than men but receive lower wages.” Women reportedly are more successful in completing post-secondary schooling (Zinshteyn). Out of women and men aged 25-29, 39% of women had earned their bachelor’s degree, but only 32% of men had (Zinshteyn). In 2014, “86 percent of adults with at least a bachelor’s degree between the ages of 25 and 34 were employed … males were working at higher rates - 90 percent to 83 percent” (Zinshteyn).

In a study done by the Pew Research Center, women were found to outpace men in college, despite races (Gonzalez-Barrera et al.). The difference has increased substantially since 1994 when the population of men enrolled in college was nearly equal to the population of women enrolled in college (Gonzalez-Barrera et al.). This has been credited to several factors. For example, the economic explanation for the increase in female population in college is that “as labor market barriers to women have been lowered, the benefits of a college education grew more for women than men” (Gonzalez-Barrera et al.). A social explanation is the fact that more men are involved in crime than women, with discipline getting in the way of education.


In the United States, we are blessed (and cursed) with a broad range of access levels for the different levels of college. From community colleges that will accept even remedial students to ivy league schools that only accept the most elite, there is a way for almost anyone to access college in America. There are also many ways to pay for college; there are government funded programs designed to make college more affordable. Private loans are another option that many students consider. These loans can have variable interest rates and if you are considering this option to pay for your tuition read the fine prime, calculate the costs of the interest, how much the payments will be when the loan is due, and if all of these numbers add up with your expected salary so that you will not regret your college experience. Unfortunately, schools are not getting any cheaper as Lily Rothman talks about this issue over the last century of our country and “after inflation is accounted for the average tuition for today’s schools is more than doubled compared to 1950” (Rothman). If these issues concern you refer to “Higher education returns on investment” found in this wiki.

Access plays a significant role in the decision about attending college. Both Private and Public Colleges aren’t very accessible for everyone, so many people attend Community Colleges instead. “With enrollment caps reported at many public flagship universities in large states, increased focus is being paid to community colleges to provide access for the greatest bulge in enrollment since the “baby boom” of the mid-1960s” (Katsinas). With Community Colleges being such a priority, they can provide access to more students that do not have access to other colleges. Community College provides easier access for any race, gender, or person that attends college and goes to work. “Community colleges are the portal of entry into higher education for millions of academically talented, low-income, first-generation, and minority high school graduates.” (Katsinas) Community College not only provides the most access to a higher education but also allows access to the Public and Private Four-Year Colleges.

Graduation Rates

“The national graduation rate is currently 59%”; That is, “out of all of the freshmen that started college in 2009 59% have graduated by 2015”, this can vary depending what type of college you choose to attend (NCES). If you are attending a private nonprofit institution the graduation rate climbs to 66%: however, if you attend a private for-profit school the rate falls to 23%. Public schools are at par with the national average of 59%. This number can also change if you are a male or female, “the 6-year graduation rate was 62 percent for females and 56 percent for males; it was higher for females than for males at both public (61 vs. 55 percent) and private nonprofit institutions (68 vs. 62 percent) (NCES). However, at private for-profit institutions, males had a higher 6-year graduation rate than females (24 vs. 22 percent).” The school you choose to attend can have numbers that vary from these statistics. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, “6-year graduation rates were highest at institutions that were the most selective (i.e., had the lowest admissions acceptance rates) and were lowest at institutions that were the least selective (i.e., had open admissions policies). For example, at 4-year institutions with open admissions policies, 32 percent of students completed a bachelor's degree within 6 years. At 4-year institutions where the acceptance rate was less than 25 percent of applicants, the 6-year graduation rate was 88 percent” (NCES).

International Higher Education

Every year more and more international students come to the United States looking for a higher education by attending a university. “Internationalization is of growing significance worldwide, with economic, political and social changes driving an increasingly global knowledge economy” (International Trends in Higher Education). “The global population of students who move to another country to study continues to rise, reaching almost 5 million in 2014 – more than double the 2.1 million internationally mobile students in 2000 – with an annual increase of 10%.1” (International Trends in Higher Education). If this continues, you are likely to see a bigger percentage within ten years. “For now, the USA remains the most popular country for international students, followed by the UK, Germany, France, and Australia, with half of all international students pursuing degrees in these five countries” (International Trends in Higher Education). The United States is known as the land of opportunities, so many people come here to achieve their dreams. “The most mobile students remain those from Asia, with China, India and South Korea the leading source of international students. Almost one in six international students is Chinese, and Asian students account for 53% of all students studying abroad” (International Trends in Higher Education).

The Knowledge Pipeline

Preparing for College

Attending college or university has become more valuable now than it ever has. How does one get started? Where is the money going to come from? How does one decide which school is the best match? These are questions that go through the minds of every high school student. Test scores should not be the primary indicator for college preparedness (High Stakes Testing). Standardized testing does nothing to answer the questions being asked in the previous paragraph. Test scores are also hurting minority students and diversity in our higher education institutions and by proxy our workforce (Bial). Budget cuts are hurting our students. Currently, the New Jersey state education budget has been underfunded by close to $7 billion. A Save Our Schools NJ spokesperson said, “Rather than spending time and money trying to improve standardized test-taking skills, we should be working to ensure that our public schools engage our children intellectually and instill in them a lifetime love of learning” (Cooke). Cutting so much from an already precise budget leave faculty with little to work to implement programs that will help students to investigate and understand the ins and outs of what it means to go to college.

College may cost more than the average student perceives. Many students go to school believing that after four years they will graduate. This, unfortunately, is not the case for nearly half of these students (Marcus). Many financial aid programs only cover four years and students also lose valuable time in the workforce. Much of this can be avoided by ensuring our students know what they are doing before they get to college. It has been suggested that a taxpayer-funded school voucher program would benefit students. While this may give students, who qualify for the vouchers, access to schools which mostly by name alone will provide them access to more opportunities. The public-school system, and thus most of the other students will suffer greatly. The vouchers would take away additional funding to an already suffering education budget (School Voucher Basics).

With the prior knowledge that a student may not graduate in the expected 4 years, summer courses and extra credits should be kept in mind when preparing for college. Since some will take longer than 4 years to graduate community college, summer and winter courses, and part-time schooling are some ways students can complete in 4 years. At most public universities, only 19 percent of full-time students earn a bachelor’s degree in four years(Lewin.). With these statistics, students should keep an open mind on their options in order for graduation and completion to be on time.

Preparing for college entails the preliminary arrangements that students involve themselves in before the admission in the institutions (Philips and Case 407). According to Chen (320), learners are supposed to undertake the various approaches while preparing for studies. The techniques include the performance of the self-evaluation involving the field of competence and the necessary standardized tests in the purported area, availing the required resources to support the studies, and finally, critically choosing the preferred institutions where the required courses are exclusively offered. Apparently, the planning for joining schools is a gradual process that should be undertaken with a lot of care.

Open Textbooks

Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics report in 2016 shows college textbook prices have increased 88% over the course of ten-years. Textbooks are an important part of a college student’s education, yet many students are finding it difficult to afford them. To help students with rising textbook costs, the Affordable College Textbook Act was introduced in 2013. The bill directs the Secretary of Education to make competitive grants to institutions of higher education (IHEs) to support pilot programs that expand the use of open textbooks to achieve savings for students. An open textbook is a textbook that is licensed under an “open” copyright license and available for anyone to use. Open textbooks are available in different formats such as print, e-book, or audio that may be downloaded or purchased at little or no cost. An educational institution can purchase the rights to an open textbook, distribute it to their students, and lower the cost of a college textbook for the student.

Is a College Education Worth the Cost?

An article by Jason Abel and Richard Diaz, both economists at the Federal Reserve Bank, asserts it is a sound investment for the future. The report goes on to say a college graduate with a Bachelor’s Degree receives a 14 to 15 % return on their investment. The economists agree stating this would be a good return on any investment. A Brookings Institute Paper concurs stating that this is one of the best investment that can be made to attain financial security in the US. Data from the US Census Bureau also supports the statement that a college education is worth the cost. The data shows that college graduates make double the money of people without a college degree. The gap between high school graduates earning power and that of a college graduate widens every year. Another benefit is a college graduate enjoys lower unemployment rates of a shorter duration than their counterparts. The answer to the question is a college education worth it, is a resounding yes if you are looking climb the ladder of success.

College Completion Rate

President Johnson’s Education Act of 1965 increased access to a college education for many students but failed to increase graduation rates. Student’s need alternative programs in technology and other certificate programs to be covered. States also must do more to make public colleges more affordable. Other states should follow the lead of Tennessee, the first to introduce a program to make two-year state colleges free for all adults and high school graduates. The program dubbed the Tennessee Promise Scholarship also provides individual guidance to each student through a mandatory mentoring program. This guidance is crucial to increasing completion rates. Unless US colleges institute ongoing one to one guidance program, the graduation rates of at-risk students will never increase. If mentoring programs do not increase in colleges, overall graduation rates will stagnate.

College Affordability

A college education should be a basic right for all Americans. All fifty states should step up to the plate and guarantee debt-free college educations at public colleges. If the states design the programs, they will fit each state’s needs and budgets. There are certain provisions that must be included in every program. It is vital that the income cap includes both low income and middle-income families. A mandatory mentoring program is necessary to guarantee student success. Students that have already graduated and have large student debt should be provided a debt relief program. Each student should be given the ability to refinance their loans at current rates if they are lower. The government should never be allowed to profit from the Federal Loan program, and interest rates must be cut to do this. Every state should re-evaluate their programs yearly to make sure they are accomplishing the goals set.

The Financial Aspect of Higher Education


When you think about going to college, of course, one of the first things you consider is what is it going to cost. Not only will you be paying tuition you will also have to pay for books and supplies, room and board, or travel expenses if you do not live on campus. When all of these things are added together what is college going to cost you? “According to the latest figures, average annual tuition and fees for in-state students at public universities have risen 2.9 percent for the 2014-15 school year, to $9,139. The tuition/fees for nonresidents at state universities increased 3.3 percent to $22,958. At public two-year colleges, the price jumped 3.3 percent, bringing the average tab to $3,347. Private, nonprofit colleges raised their tuition by 3.7 percent, bringing the new cost to $31,231” (O’Shaughnessy). Room and boarding is another expense that students face. “The average room/board cost for students at state universities is now $9,804, while private schools are charging $11,188” (O’Shaughnessy).

Some students qualify for financial aid which will help cover some of these expenses. “About two-thirds of undergraduate students who are enrolled full-time receive a price break in the form of grants and scholarships. Undergrads got an average of $14,180 in financial aid in 2013-2014” (O’Shaughnessy). One of the highest and fastest rising prices of college is textbooks, “College textbooks are expensive, you probably already know this. A new biology book or economics book can cost $300. And prices have been soaring, doubling over the past decade, growing faster than the price of housing, cars, even health care” (Kestenbaum).

Financial Aid

The United States federal government provides needs- based grants through the Federal Pell Grant Program. Administered through the U.S. Department of Education, The Pell Grant award can be used by the student at any of the estimated 5,400 participating postsecondary institutions for tuition, books, transportation, and living expenses. Eligibility for the Pell Grant program requires the student to demonstrate financial need, complete a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), and provide financial information to determine the student’s Expected Family Contribution (EFC). A Pell Grant award is based on the student’s EFC, which is calculated by a standard formula established by Congress. This formula evaluates the information reported on the student’s FAFSA, the cost of attendance at student’s chosen college, whether the student will attend part-time or full-time, and if the student will attend a half academic or full academic year. The maximum award a student can receive for the 2017-18 academic year will be $5,920. More than seven million students in the United States are expected to receive a Pell Grant award to go to college.

Financial aid is a necessary thing for a lot of people in the United States to help them achieve higher education. “Giving money to students rather than institutions also provided a second benefit: a stronger political foundation than in the past. A comparison to federal financing for elementary and secondary education is instructive. In 2008, Congress appropriated about $16-billion for the Pell Grant program. Funds for Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, an antipoverty program designed in the same era and spirit as the Pell Grant, amounted to about $14-billion. Both Title I and Pell were created to help low-income students” (The Chronicle Review).

Financial aid is of critical need to the students who are incapable of raising the required amount of cash to support their education. According to Castleman, Benjamin, and Lindsay (400), the requiring obligations of learning like purchasing of learning materials like books and other provisions like food and other necessities has made several States to give support to the overwhelmed students. The forms of the assistance include the merit-based scholarships and the need-grants as well as the student loans (Finnie 297). While the main aim of the financial aids is to meet the financial needs of the students severally, it has been insufficient due to the increasing number of beneficiaries.

Student Loan Debt

The costs of college are rising tremendously, and as a result, student loan debt is at an all-time high. Students and the government alike, need to figure out ways to cut down on the costs of college. There are currently over 44 million people with student loans, totaling $1.4 Trillion. “In fact, the average Class of 2016 graduate has $37,172 in student loan debt, up six percent from last year” (A Look at Shocking Student Loan Debt).

College is expensive, but there are other ways to pay for it other than student loans. Scholarships, grants, and financial aid are all better options since they do not have to be paid back. It all starts with filling out the FAFSA to see what type of aid, and how much, you qualify for. If those options do not offer enough aid, or you do not qualify, then a student should look into federal student loans or payment plans with the college. Private loans are also available, but they are risky.The interest rate is usually high, and they do not have the same protections and perks that federal student loans have. For those reasons, private loans should be a last resort. There are also a few other ways to cut down on the amount of student loan debt you accumulate; go to community college, live at home, or get a roommate to cut down on expenses (Fay).

Net- Price Calculator

A net price calculator is a tool that helps a student figure out what college tuition will cost them. It is available on all college websites. In order to figure out the net cost, the student needs to enter some information about themselves and their income, and the calculator will tell them the approximate cost of tuition for that school minus any possible financial aid and grants available. “A 2008 federal law mandated colleges build such calculators—but most are time-consuming and difficult to use” (A simple calculator). Net price calculators are only helpful when standardized and comparable. If one calculator has ten questions, while another has fifty, and yet another has thirty, then the standardization becomes questionable because the results do not mean the same things (“Adding it All Up”). Net price calculators should be standardized to contain a specific range of questions and required information, and the results they provide should be representative of the same values.

Higher Education and Return on Investment

Over the years, it has become more apparent that in order to be successful in a career, a college degree is necessary. Many people, young and old, are getting a college education. In an article in “Affordability and the Return on Investment of College Completion,” it is stated that “the average earnings of young adults with a bachelor's degree are twice as high as that of workers with only a high school diploma” (Bowers 144).

However, the question is, does the ever increasing cost of college pay off? The answer is not so simple. Time Money writer, Jamie Merisoti, asserts “not all ‘college’ is created equal, and consumers must be smart about investing in the right programs, tackling learning efficiently, and using available aid to their advantage” (Merisoti par. 9). Research shows some majors are better than others. Eight of the top 10 best paying majors have to do with Engineering, and several of the worst paying majors are related to the Arts.

However, the return on investment with respect to education is not necessarily monetary. There are some non-monetary benefits such as “the overall health of the individual as well as that of their offspring is better if you have a college degree. In addition, a college education is correlated with "decrease prejudice, enhance knowledge of world affairs and enhance social status" (Dubner). In terms of benefits to the society, “College graduates are more engaged citizens and make healthier decisions than those who don't earn a diploma” (Powers).

Student Loan Default

Federal student loans are the most widely used resources for paying for college tuition, books, and housing. While most students qualify for federal student loans, basically if your school participates and you are not currently behind on payments of a previous loan. It is expected that when you graduate from college, you will begin repayment on the money you were loaned. If you do not begin making payments, your repayment status will be by default. How and why does default happen, and what can be done to prevent it? “The Consumer Federation of America (CFA) released a study Tuesday that found that millions of people had not made a payment on $137 billion in federal student loans for at least nine months in 2016, a 14 percent increase in defaults from a year earlier” (Douglas-Gabriel).

In 2015, President Obama signed “a Presidential Memorandum directing the U.S. Department of Education and other federal agencies to work across the federal government to do more to help borrowers afford their monthly loan payment” (The White House Office of the Press Secretary) in the Student Aid Bill of Rights listed as follows:

The Student Aid Bill of Rights

  1. Every student deserves access to a quality, affordable education at a college that’s cutting costs and increasing learning.
  2. Every student should be able to access the resources needed to pay for college.
  3. Every borrower has the right to an affordable repayment plan. And every borrower has the right to quality customer service, reliable information, and fair treatment, even if they struggle to repay their loans.

President Obama’s plan includes “(1) a state-of-the-art complaint system to ensure quality service and accountability for the U.S. Department of Education, its contractors, and colleges, (2) a series of steps to help students responsibly repay their loans including help setting affordable monthly payments, and (3) new steps to analyze student debt trends and recommend legislative and regulatory changes” (The White House Office of the Press Secretary).

Solving the Higher Education Problem in the United States

Free Universal College Tuition

Policymakers all over America are pushing for cheap or free college. In 2015, a White House plan named post-secondary school a necessity in today’s changing world (“Statement on White House Plan”). To make this necessity, access to higher education must improve. Many students opt out of college due to the insane costs; states like Tennessee and New York have begun implementing free higher education in some form because lawmakers have realized that to demand higher education, they must also make it so that higher education can be afforded (“Statement on White House Plan”).

Despite the good intentions, the Tennessee Promise does not benefit those who need the most help (“Statement on White House Plan”). The Excelsior Scholarship in New York aims to benefit everyone who partakes in it, but there is controversy over some of its requirements, such as the New York residency obligation and minimum credit requirements (Seltzer Inside Higher Ed). The White House Plan, however, attempts to make college tuition more affordable by providing extra funding to those states that make affordability reforms (“Statement on White House Plan”). A degree is becoming more and more necessary. To make community college free would be to provide post-secondary education to thousands of people who would otherwise never be able to afford it. “Talented students are forgoing college because of the costs, students who start college are unable to complete because they cannot afford to continue, and even students who finish degrees may not realize all of the expected returns because of sizable debt burdens” (Kamenetz).

Community College

Community College (Junior College) is a great choice for students who are looking for a cheaper but still quality education close to home. The definition of a community college is, “a nonresidential junior college established to serve a specific community and typically supported in part by local government funds” (Dictionary.com). Community colleges serve many purposes including Associate's degrees, Affordable local higher education, Easy transfer of credits to a four-year degree, offering remedial classes, and Summer courses that can supplement a four-year degree. They are definitely worth looking into especially if the student is not sure if they want to attend college or does not know what degree they want to pursue yet.

As incoming students look for ways to get a college degree and save money, community colleges are becoming more and more popular as time goes on. Nearly 6.3 million students were enrolled in two- year, public schools (Community College FAQs). About 2.3 million were full-time, and about 4 million were part-time (Community College FAQS). Also, about 60% of students who enroll in the fall will return in the spring (Community College FAQs). More than half returning to retrieve their degrees is a good sign for students looking to be successful.

Improving Graduation Rates at Community Colleges

Community Colleges are a great starting point for a lot of students who aren’t quite sure what they would like to pursue as a career. Community college also is an option for students who are hoping to save money on student loans before transferring to a 4-year college or university. However, something seems to happen in the two years that you should spend in community college. Students are taking longer to graduate, and in that time some students aren’t graduating at all.

Just 20 percent of full-time students seeking a degree get one within three years. That number rises to 35 percent after five years, but by then another 45 percent have given up completely and are no longer enrolled. With graduation rates that low, community colleges can be dead ends rather than gateways for students. Graduation rates are low in part because community colleges can’t exclude poorly prepared students. Unlike selective schools, they are required to take anyone who walks in the door, and they have to work harder to get those students to graduation (Dynarski).

So why do we need to improve the community college graduation rates? Going to a community college allows a person to take classes for self-improvement, to increase technical skills and for some to earn an Associate degree or even go further and earn a Bachelor degree. It is not the single focus of a community college to increase graduation rates. The purpose the community college serves is much more than the conferring of degrees.

Works Cited

“A Look at the Shocking Student Loan Debt Statistics for 2017.” Student Loan Hero, 17 May 2017. Web. 17 June 2017

“A Simple Calculator for a Complex Problem: Explaining Net Price to Applicants.” EAB, 24 Sept. 2015. Web. 24 June 2017.

“Adding it All Up.” The Institute for College Access and Success. Oct. 2017. Web. 20 Jun. 2017.

Affordable College Textbook Act. (2013). congress.gov

American Council on Education and American Association of University Professors. “Does Diversity Make a Difference? Three Research Studies on Diversity in College Classrooms.” 2000. Web. 24 June 2017. https://www.aaup.org/NR/rdonlyres/F1A2B22A-EAE2-4D31-9F68-6F235129917E/0/2000_diversity_report.pdf

Bial, Deborah. “Diversity In the Workplace Starts with Diversity in Higher Education.” Forbes. 30 March 2016. Web. 24 June 2017.

Bowers, Amanda, and Matt Bergman. “Affordability and the Return on Investment of College Completion: Unique Challenges and Opportunities for Adult Learners.” The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 64. 3 (2016): 144-151.

Brown, Meta, et al. "Measuring student debt and its performance." Student Loans and the Dynamics of Debt (2015): 37-52.

Castleman, Benjamin L., and Lindsay C. P. "Freshman year financial aid nudges: An experiment to increase FAFSA renewal and college persistence." Journal of Human Resources 51.2 (2016): 389-415.

Chen, Xianglei. "STEM Attrition: College students' paths into and out of stem fields. statistical analysis report. NCES 2014-001."

Dubner, Stephen J. “Freakonomics Goes to College, Part 2.” Freakonomics Radio. 16 August 2012. Web. 24 June 2017.

Dynarski, Susan. “How to Improve Graduation Rates at Community Colleges.” The New York Times. 11 Mar. 2015. Web. 18 June 2017.

Fay, Bill. “Students & Debt.” Debt.org, 2017. Web. 24 June 2017.

Gonzalez-Barrera, Ana and Hugo Lopez, Mark. “Women’s College Enrollment Gains Leave Men Behind.” Pew Research Center. 6 Mar. 2014. Web. 24 June 2017. High Stakes Testing. 2 June 2017. http://www.saveourschoolsnj.org/high-stakes-testing/

Kamenetz, Anya. "Is Free College Really Free?" NPR. 05 Jan. 2017. Web. 21 June 2017.

Katsinas, Stephen G., et al. “Access and Funding in Public Higher Education--The 2011 National Survey.” 1 Jan. 2100. Web. 24 June 2017.

Kestenbaum, David. “How College Students Battled Textbook Publishers To A Draw, In 3 Graphs.” NPR . 9 Oct.2014. Web. 20 June 2017.

Merisotis, Jamie. “Yes, College Is Still a Good Investment—and Here Are 3 Ways to Make It a Better One.” Time Money, 22 Oct. 2015. Web. 17 June 2017.

“Net Price Calculator Center.” US Dept. of Education. https://collegecost.ed.gov/netpricecenter.aspx. Accessed 17 June 2017

O’Shaughnessy, Lynn. “What Going to College in the U.S Costs Today.” CBS Interactive. 13 Nov. 2014. Web. 20 June 2017.

Pew Research Center. “Immigration’s Impact on Past and Future U.S. Population Change.” 28 Sep 2015. Web. 24 June 2017.

Powers, Elia. “The (Non-Monetary) Value of a College Degree.” Inside Higher Education. 13 Sep 2007. Web. 24 June 2017.

Rothman, Lily. “Rising Cost of American College Tuition: A Century of Worry.” Time. 31 Aug. 2016. Web. 24 June 2017.

“Statement on White House Plan.” The Institute for College Access and Success. 9 Jan. 2015.

“The 20 Best- and Worst-Paid College Majors.” Time, 2016. http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/completelist/0,29569,2073703,00.html Accessed 17 June 2017.

“The NCES Fast Facts Tool Provides Quick Answers to Many Education Questions (National Center for Education Statistics).” National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, a Part of the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2017. Web. 21 June 2017.

The Chronicle of Higher Education. "Fixing Financial Aid." 04 Mar. 2013. Web. 22 June 2017.

The White House Office of the Press Secretary. FACT SHEET: A Student Aid Bill of Rights Taking Action to Ensure Strong Consumer Protections for Student Loan Borrowers 10 March 2015. Web. 21 June 2017.

Zinshteyn, Mikhail. “College Graduation Rates Rise, But Racial Gaps Persist and Men Still Out-earn Women.” The Hechinger Report. 26 May 2016. Web. 24 June 2017.

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