Negotiation Styles Cross Culturly

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Abstract

International business has expanded as gaps in successful cross-cultural negotiations skills of leaders and managers are well understood. It is good to learn how these types of agreements are implemented and how they vary from various continents in the latest foreign business activities. This calls on the managers and managers to cultivate the best and brightest skills to create a competitive business climate. In this paper, research has been taken from various universities for example in the United State of America to help in finding out cultural differences and multiple strategies that are employed during the negotiation process. It's confirmed that the differences in cultures result in distinct perceptions and tactics that are used or operated through the method of negotiation. In support of the international cooperation to be successful, the involved parties need to look into various cultures form each side to enable them to employ the required type of negotiation skills that will eventually lead to market benefits.

Cross-Cultural Negotiations Styles

 Business has been joined in the world market to align with the requirements and expectations that are required (Casse, 1981). The global economy is still competitive therefore; it creates a difficult environment for carrying out business activities more so engaging in monopoly kind of business. The great rise of global business is due to contacts and cooperation with overseas countries, therefore for any business to gain the best position in the world, managers and the executive committee needs to be aware of important functions of cross-cultural negotiation styles since most of them differ from each other. The differences have an impact in an entry to strategy business, for example, the type of country market, the type of the product, the type of marketing program and how to cope with the environment in the foreign market as well as to control the entrance of businesses (Casse, 1981). This paper researches on cross-culture negotiation styles that are crucial to companies that are carrying out business in an overseas country so to assist in comprehending how cross culture negotiation styles affect business.

Cross-Culture Negotiation Styles

For buyers and sellers to get involved in business, they require terns of negotiation. The culture of every party involved in negotiation process needs to determine their kind of thinking, behaviors, and values (Hung et al., 1998). Every business culture develops different negotiation styles (Gulbro & Herbig, 1994). The differences in international or cross-culture negotiation styles come as a result of distinct protocols, persuasion tactics, communication and individual features which include adaptation, flexibility, accommodation, and courage. Therefore, it's crucial for the specialists to comprehend international negotiation styles of other foreign people and to study their cultural philosophies and customs. This will help organization involved in negotiation process hence leading to a positive result.

Cross-culture negotiation styles can be categorized into two main parts, starting with integrative vs. distributive followed by cooperative vs. competitive (Korobkin, 2000). For this case, we begin by analyzing the first negotiating tactic. Distributive negotiation styles are mainly on the hypothesis of win or lose philosophy which is the same as the cooperative negotiation style. On the other hand, competitive negotiation style is based on the idea of only winning like, (win-win) philosophy which is the same as integrative (Robertson & Manning, 2003). It doesn't matter which negotiation style each party will employ be it cooperative or competitive; all will depend on organizational differences, culture and personality of each side that is involved, therefore integrative style stress more on the best outcome.

Influence of Cross Culture in Business

Through the research, it is clear that culture's experience will differentiate one person's negotiation style from another individual; it affects the variety of tactics in which negotiation is involved and employed. Therefore, culture can influence negotiation in different ways depending on the purpose of consultation, communication, personal style and many more others. For the case of discussion in the cross-culture negotiation, cultures have influenced the kind of conversation that is employed, for example, low text communication or excellent text communication (Barry & Oliver, 1996).

However, this mostly is functional in Vietnam and other parts of Asia whereby they tend to be more indirectly which is the same as senior text communication as compared to low text communication (Barry & Oliver, 1996). The importance of using indirect is that; it's the best especially when disapproval is shown thus other foreign negotiating parties may feel being considered when the negotiation is being denied.

Benefits of Cross-Culture Negotiations Styles

Through the research that was conducted, it's evident that cross culture negotiation styles have helped many business individuals globally to carry out their business efficiently. It helps in individuals in comprehending how to negotiate about payments in their jobs that they are carrying out for the first time (Barry & Oliver, 1996). It gives the managers the opportunity to employ the most skilled workers in a competitive market for example, in America and Vietnam people feel somehow contented for their first payment and better working condition once they are recruited to work in cross-culture business.

 Above all there is upkeep of functional relationships among the parties involved in the negotiation, for this case, students from Vietnam and America feel contented being engaged in bargaining with individuals from different countries over the purchase of cars. This demonstrates the excellent relationship involved parties have created among themselves (Barry & Oliver, 1996).

Conclusion

In conclusion, Cross-cultural negotiation tactics in global business affect both within and outside the business structure. Due to many parties involved with the different culture that is the evidence that they don't employ the same feeling, thinking and behavior (Casse, 1981). The purpose of the research was to find out the impact of cross-cultural negotiation styles internationally which are essential to people who want to carry out business activity globally. This keeps the researchers optimistically that will increase the level of comprehending the negotiation styles which will create a competitive benefit and improve international business.

Reference

Antonis C. Simintiras, Andrew H. Thomas, (1998) The Cross-cultural negotiation business: A literature assessment and study propositions," International Marketing Review, Vol. 15 Issue: 1, pp.10-28.

Barry, B. and R. L. Oliver (1996).  Affect in dyadic negotiation:  A model and propositions.  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67, 127-43

Casse, P. (1981). The cross-cultural training of the mind. Washington, DC: Society for Cross-Cultural Education, Training and Study, cross-cultural Press

Gulbro, R. D. & Herbig, P. (1999). The differences firms encounter in cultural when Negotiating globally.  Industrial Management + Data Systems, 99(2), 47-56.  Retrieved March 15, 2005, from proQuest database.

Korobkin, R. (2000).  A positive theory of legal negotiation.  George Law Journal, 88(6), 1789-1732.  Retrieved May 14, 2004, from proQuest database.

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